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Bird Checklists of the United States

Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge

Jet, Oklahoma


Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, located in north-central Oklahoma in Alfalfa County, was established in 1930 as a breeding ground and feeding area for migratory birds, primarily waterfowl.

Of the 32,000 acres encompassed by the Refuge, approximately 12,000 acres are salt flats, 10,000 acres impoundment, and 10,000 acres upland. The uplands, predominantly native grasslands with a substantial acreage of invading brush and forest, include 1,300 acres of crop fields planted to wheat and milo for waterfowl. In addition, and as a part of the waterfowl management program, a system of small fresh water ponds and marshes has been constructed. This diversity of habitat, created through management and protection, accounts for the abundance and variety of birds found on Salt Plains.

This list contains 296 species which have been observed on the refuge since 1930. Species are listed in accordance with the sixth edition (1983) A.O.U. checklist.

You are requested to report sightings of birds not on our check-list or if listed as rare or accidental. Sightings may be reported to the Refuge Manager, Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Rt. 1, Box 76, Jet, OK 73749.


* - species nests locally
Endangered Species are listed in capital letters.
Seasonal status and abundance are coded as follows:

Sp - March-May
S - June-August
F - September-November
W - December-February

a - abundant: a common species which is very numerous
c - common: certain to be seen in suitable habitat at the suitable time of day or season
u - uncommon: present, but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: seen at intervals of 2 to 5 years


LOONS Sp S F W ___ Common Loon r - r r
GREBES Sp S F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe* c o c o ___ Horned Grebe r - r r ___ Eared Grebe* u r u - ___ Western Grebe r - r r
PELICANS Sp S F W ___ American White Pelican a u a o ___ Brown Pelican accidental
CORMORANTS Sp S F W ___ Double-crested Cormorant* c o c -
ANHINGAS Sp S F W ___ Anhinga accidental
BITTERNS & HERONS Sp S F W ___ American Bittern u o u r ___ Least Bittern* o o o - ___ Great Blue Heron* c c c c ___ Great Egret c c c - ___ Snowy Egret c c c - ___ Little Blue Heron c c c - ___ Tricolored Heron accidental ___ Cattle Egret c c c - ___ Green Heron* c c c - ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron* u u u - ___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron o o o -
IBISES & SPOONBILLS Sp S F W ___ White Ibis accidental ___ White-faced Ibis u u r - ___ Roseate Spoonbill accidental
SWANS, GEESE & DUCKS Sp S F W ___ Trumpeter Swan accidental ___ Tundra Swan (Whistling Swan) r - r r ___ Greater White-fronted Goose c - c u ___ Snow Goose u - u u ___ Ross' Goose r - r r ___ Brant accidental ___ Barnacle Goose accidental ___ Canada Goose a - a a ___ Wood Duck* c c c - ___ Green-winged Teal a r a u ___ American Black Duck r r r r ___ Mallard* a o a a ___ Northern Pintail* a o a u ___ Blue-winged Teal* a o a u ___ Cinnamon Teal r r r r ___ Northern Shoveler* a o a u ___ Gadwall* a o a c ___ American Wigeon* a o a c ___ Canvasback u - u o ___ Redhead* a r u o ___ Ring-necked Duck c - u o ___ Greater Scaup r - - r ___ Lesser Scaup c r u o ___ Oldsquaw - - r r ___ Common Goldeneye u - u c ___ Bufflehead c - c o ___ Hooded Merganser u - u u ___ Common Merganser c - c a ___ Red-breasted Merganser r - r r ___ Ruddy Duck c r c o
VULTURES Sp S F W ___ Black Vulture accidental ___ Turkey Vulture* c c c -
KITES, EAGLES & HAWKS Sp S F W ___ Osprey o - o - ___ Mississippi Kite* c c c - ___ BALD EAGLE c - c c ___ Northern Harrier (Marsh Hawk) c - c c ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk u - u u ___ Cooper's Hawk* u r u u ___ Northern Goshawk - - r r ___ Red-shouldered Hawk r r r r ___ Broad-winged Hawk r - r - ___ Swainson's Hawk* c c c r ___ Red-tailed Hawk* c u c c ___ Ferruginous Hawk r - r r ___ Rough-legged Hawk o - o u ___ Golden Eagle o - o o
CARACARAS & FALCONS Sp S F W ___ American Kestrel* c o c c ___ Merlin r - r r ___ PEREGRINE FALCON r r r r ___ Prairie Falcon o r o o ___ Crested Caracara accidental
PHEASANTS, GROUSE, TURKEYS & QUAIL Sp S F W ___ Ring-necked Pheasant* c c c c ___ Wild Turkey* a u a a ___ Northern Bobwhite* c c c c
RAILS, GALLINULES & COOTS Sp S F W ___ Black Rail* r r r - ___ King Rail* u o u - ___ Virginia Rail* o r o - ___ Sora u r u - ___ Common Moorhen* r r r - ___ American Coot* a u a u
OYSTERCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ American Oystercatcher accidental
CRANES Sp S F W ___ Sandhill Crane a - a r ___ WHOOPING CRANE r - r -
PLOVERS Sp S F W ___ Black-bellied Plover u o u - ___ American Golden Plover (Lesser Gol-Pl.) o - r - ___ Snowy Plover* a a a - ___ Semipalmated Plover u - u - ___ Piping Plover r - - - ___ Killdeer* c c c o ___ Mountain Plover accidental
STILTS & AVOCETS Sp S F W ___ Black-necked Stilt r - r - ___ American Avocet* a a a -
SANDPIPERS & PHALAROPES Sp S F W ___ Greater Yellowlegs c c c r ___ Lesser Yellowlegs c o c r ___ Solitary Sandpiper o o o - ___ Willet c c c - ___ Spotted Sandpiper c c c - ___ Upland Sandpiper u u u - ___ Whimbrel r - r - ___ Long-billed Curlew o - o - ___ Hudsonian Godwit u r r - ___ Marbled Godwit o r r - ___ Ruddy Turnstone o - o - ___ Red Knot accidental ___ Sanderling o - o - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper a c a - ___ Western Sandpiper a u a - ___ Least Sandpiper a u a - ___ White-rumped Sandpiper a a a - ___ Baird's Sandpiper a u a - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper u u u - ___ Dunlin o - o - ___ Stilt Sandpiper c u c - ___ Buff-breasted Sandpiper r - - - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher c c c - ___ Common Snipe u - u o ___ American Woodcock r - r r ___ Wilson's Phalarope c c c - ___ Red-necked Phalarope r r r -
GULLS & TERNS Sp S F W ___ Parasitic Jaeger accidental ___ Laughing Gull accidental ___ Franklin's Gull a u a - ___ Common Black-headed Gull accidental ___ Bonaparte's Gull r - r r ___ Ring-billed Gull c u c a ___ Herring Gull u o u u ___ Glaucous Gull r - - r ___ Caspian Tern r r r - ___ Roseate Tern accidental ___ Common Tern o o o - ___ Forster's Tern u o u - ___ LEAST TERN* c c c - ___ Black Tern c u c -
PIGEONS & DOVES Sp S F W ___ Rock Dove r r r r ___ Mourning Dove* c c a r
CUCKOOS & ANIS Sp S F W ___ Black-billed Cuckoo r - - - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* c c c - ___ Greater Roadrunner* o o o o
BARN OWLS Sp S F W ___ Barn Owl* o o o o
TYPICAL OWLS Sp S F W ___ Eastern Screech-Owl* o o o o ___ Great Horned Owl* c c c c ___ Snowy Owl r - - r ___ Burrowing Owl r r r - ___ Barred Owl* u u u u ___ Long-eared Owl r - r r ___ Short-eared Owl r - r o
NIGHTHAWKS & NIGHTJARS Sp S F W ___ Common Nighthawk* c c c - ___ Chuck-will's-widow* c c o -
SWIFTS Sp S F W ___ Chimney Swift* c c c -
HUMMINGBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird o o o -
KINGFISHERS Sp S F W ___ Belted Kingfisher* c c c c
WOODPECKERS Sp S F W ___ Red-headed Woodpecker* c c c r ___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker r - r r ___ Ladder-backed Woodpecker accidental ___ Downy Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker* u u u u ___ Northern Flicker (Common Flicker)* c c c c ___ Pileated Woodpecker r r r r
TYRANT FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher - - r - ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee o o o - ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher o - - - ___ Least Flycatcher o - - - ___ Eastern Phoebe* u u u - ___ Say's Phoebe - - - r ___ Great Crested Flycatcher* c c c - ___ Western Kingbird* c c c - ___ Eastern Kingbird* c c c - ___ Scissor-tailed Flycatcher* c c a -
LARKS Sp S F W ___ Horned Lark* c u c c
SWALLOWS Sp S F W ___ Purple Martin o o o - ___ Tree Swallow c - u - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow* a o c - ___ Bank Swallow* c o c - ___ Cliff Swallow* c c c - ___ Barn Swallow* a c c -
JAYS, MAGPIES & CROWS Sp S F W ___ Blue Jay* c c c c ___ American Crow* c c c c
TITMICE Sp S F W ___ Carolina Chickadee* c c c c ___ Tufted Titmouse* c c c c
NUTHATCHES Sp S F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch r - r r ___ White-breasted Nuthatch r - r r
CREEPERS Sp S F W ___ Brown Creeper u - u u
WRENS Sp S F W ___ Rock Wren - - r - ___ Carolina Wren* c c c u ___ Bewick's Wren* c c c u ___ House Wren* c c c r ___ Winter Wren o - o o ___ Sedge Wren u - u o ___ Marsh Wren u - u o
KINGLETS & GNATCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet o - o u ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet u - u o ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* c c c -
THRUSHES Sp S F W ___ Eastern Bluebird* c u c u ___ Mountain Bluebird r - - - ___ Townsend's Solitaire - - - r ___ Swainson's Thrush c - o - ___ Hermit Thrush r - - r ___ Wood Thrush r r - - ___ American Robin* c c c c
MOCKINGBIRDS & THRASHERS Sp S F W ___ Gray Catbird* c c c r ___ Northern Mockingbird* u u u o ___ Sage Thrasher - - - r ___ Brown Thrasher* c c c u
PIPITS Sp S F W ___ American Pipit (Water Pipit) - - r - ___ Sprague's Pipit r - - -
WAXWINGS Sp S F W ___ Bohemian Waxwing r - - - ___ Cedar Waxwing u - u u
SHRIKES Sp S F W ___ Northern Shrike - - - r ___ Loggerhead Shrike* c c c c
STARLINGS Sp S F W ___ European Starling* c c c c
VIREOS Sp S F W ___ White-eyed Vireo - r - - ___ Bell's Vireo* c c c - ___ Solitary Vireo r - - - ___ Warbling Vireo* c c c - ___ Philadelphia Vireo r - - - ___ Red-eyed Vireo* u u u -
WOOD-WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ Golden-winged Warbler accidental ___ Tennessee Warbler u - - - ___ Orange-crowned Warbler c - u - ___ Nashville Warbler u - u - ___ Northern Parula r - - - ___ Yellow Warbler* c c u - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler r - - - ___ Magnolia Warbler r - - - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler accidental ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler c - c r ___ Black-throated Green Warbler r - r - ___ Blackburnian Warbler r - - - ___ Yellow-throated Warbler r - - - ___ Blackpoll Warbler r - - - ___ Black-and-white Warbler u - o - ___ American Redstart o - r - ___ Prothonotary Warbler* u u - - ___ Swainson's Warbler accidental ___ Ovenbird r - - - ___ Northern Waterthrush r - - - ___ Kentucky Warbler r r - - ___ Mourning Warbler r - - - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c r ___ Hooded Warbler accidental ___ Wilson's Warbler r - r - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat o o - -
TANAGERS Sp S F W ___ Summer Tanager - r r - ___ Scarlet Tanager r - - -
GROSBEAKS & BUNTINGS Sp S F W ___ Northern Cardinal* c c c c ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak o - - - ___ Black-headed Grosbeak r - - - ___ Blue Grosbeak* o o o - ___ Lazuli Bunting r - - - ___ Indigo Bunting* c c c - ___ Painted Bunting* u u o - ___ Dickcissel* c c c -
SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ Rufous-sided Towhee c - c c ___ Cassin's Sparrow r - - - ___ American Tree Sparrow a - a a ___ Chipping Sparrow* c o c r ___ Clay-colored Sparrow o - o - ___ Field Sparrow* c c c c ___ Vesper Sparrow c - c r ___ Lark Sparrow* c c c r ___ Lark Bunting r - - - ___ Savannah Sparrow u - u o ___ Grasshopper Sparrow* c c c - ___ Le Conte's Sparrow - - - o ___ Fox Sparrow o - - o ___ Song Sparrow c - c c ___ Lincoln's Sparrow o - o o ___ Swamp Sparrow o - o o ___ White-throated Sparrow u - u u ___ White-crowned Sparrow c - c c ___ Harris' Sparrow a - a a ___ Dark-eyed Junco a - a a ___ Lapland Longspur r - - r ___ Smith's Longspur - - r r ___ Chestnut-collared Longspur r - - - ___ Snow Bunting accidental
BLACKBIRDS & ORIOLES Sp S F W ___ Bobolink r - - - ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a c a a ___ Eastern Meadowlark* c c c c ___ Western Meadowlark* c c c c ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird c r u r ___ Rusty Blackbird r - r r ___ Brewer's Blackbird o - o o ___ Great-tailed Grackle u o - o ___ Common Grackle* c c c o ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c c c ___ Orchard Oriole* c c r - ___ Northern Oriole* c c u -
FINCHES Sp S F W ___ Purple Finch r - r r ___ Red Crossbill - - r - ___ Pine Siskin o - o o ___ American Goldfinch* c u c c ___ Evening Grosbeak accidental
OLD WORLD SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ House Sparrow* c c c c

For additional information contact:
                 Refuge Manager
                 Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge
                 Route 1, Box 76
                 Jet, Oklahoma 73749
                 Telephone: 580/626-4794
This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1986.  Birds of Wichita Mountains Wildlife 
     Refuge, Oklahoma.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1986.  Birds of Wichita Mountains Wildlife 
     Refuge, Oklahoma.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govwichita.htm 
     (Version 22MAY98).

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service seeks to afford persons with disabilities full accessibility or reasonable accommodation. Contact Refuge Headquarters for information or to address accesibility problems. For the hearing impaired, use your State Relay System for the Deaf.
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