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Bird Checklists of the United States

Imperial National Wildlife Refuge

Yuma, Arizona


Imperial National Wildlife Refuge consists of approximately 25,000 acres along the lower Colorado River. Spring and Fall offer the greatest variety of birds and the best birding opportunities. Also, the refuge is important as a wintering area for Canada geese and many species of ducks. Maps and regulations are available at the refuge headquarters for your convenience.

This list of 271 species is in accordance with the 6th Edition of the A.O.U. checklist as amended.


* - Nests on the refuge
^ - formerly nested on the refuge
Seasonal status and abundance are coded as follows:

Sp - March-May
S - June-August
F - September-November
W - December-February

a - abundant: common species, very numerous
c - common: certain to be seen in suitable habitat
u - uncommon: present, but not certain to be seen
o - occasional: seen only a few times during a season
r - rare: seen at intervals of 2 to 5 years
x - accidental: seen only once or twice


LOONS Sp S F W ___ Common Loon o - o o
GREBES Sp S F W ___ Least Grebe^ - - - x ___ Pied-billed Grebe* c c c c ___ Horned Grebe - - - r ___ Eared Grebe c o c c ___ Western Grebe c c c c
BOOBIES Sp S F W ___ Blue-footed Booby x x x x ___ Brown Booby x x x x
FRIGATEBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Magnificent Frigatebird - x - -
PELICANS Sp S F W ___ American White Pelican o o c c ___ Brown Pelican x r r x
CORMORANTS Sp S F W ___ Double-crested Cormorant c u c a
BITTERNS & HERONS Sp S F W ___ American Bittern* u u u u ___ Least Bittern* u c u o ___ Great Blue Heron* c c c c ___ Great Egret* c c c c ___ Snowy Egret^ u u u u ___ Tricolored Heron - - x - ___ Reddish Egret - - x - ___ Cattle Egret o o o o ___ Green Heron* u u u u ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron* u u u u
IBISES & SPOONBILLS Sp S F W ___ White Ibis x - - - ___ White-faced Ibis o u o o ___ Roseate Spoonbill - x x x
STORKS Sp S F W ___ Wood Stork - o o -
SWANS, GEESE & DUCKS Sp S F W ___ Fulvous Whistling-Duck r r r - ___ Tundra Swan - - - o ___ Greater White-fronted Goose r - o o ___ Snow Goose - - o u ___ Ross' Goose r - - r ___ Brant x - - - ___ Canada Goose o x u c ___ Wood Duck - r r u ___ Green-winged Teal u r o c ___ Mallard u - c c ___ Northern Pintail u o c c ___ Blue-winged Teal o r o o ___ Cinnamon Teal* c u c u ___ Northern Shoveler c u u c ___ Gadwall u - c c ___ American Wigeon u - c c ___ Canvasback o - o o ___ Redhead u o u u ___ Ring-necked Duck u r u u ___ Greater Scaup o - - o ___ Lesser Scaup u r u u ___ Oldsquaw - - x - ___ Surf Scoter - - x - ___ Common Goldeneye c - o o ___ Bufflehead c - u c ___ Hooded Merganser - - o o ___ Common Merganser u r u c ___ Red-breasted Merganser o o o o ___ Ruddy Duck* c u c c
AMERICAN VULTURES Sp S F W ___ Turkey Vulture* c c c u
KITES, EAGLES & HAWKS Sp S F W ___ Osprey o r u u ___ Black-shouldered Kite r r r r ___ Bald Eagle r - o u ___ Northern Harrier (Marsh Hawk)* c r c c ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk o - o o ___ Cooper's Hawk u - u u ___ Harris' Hawk o o o o ___ Red-tailed Hawk* u u u u ___ Ferruginous Hawk - - r - ___ Rough-legged Hawk - - - o ___ Golden Eagle - - o o
FALCONS Sp S F W ___ American Kestrel o o u u ___ Merlin - - r r ___ Peregrine Falcon o - o o ___ Prairie Falcon o r o o
QUAIL Sp S F W ___ Gambel's Quail* a a a a
RAILS, GALLINULES & COOTS Sp S F W ___ Black Rail* o o o o ___ Clapper Rail* u u u u ___ Virginia Rail* c u c c ___ Sora c u c c ___ Common Moorhen* u u u u ___ American Coot* c c c a
CRANES Sp S F W ___ Sandhill Crane - - o u
PLOVERS Sp S F W ___ Black-bellied Plover o o o - ___ Snowy Plover o o o o ___ Semipalmated Plover o o o - ___ Killdeer* c c c c
STILTS & AVOCETS Sp S F W ___ Black-necked Stilt* u u u - ___ American Avocet u u u o
SANDPIPERS & PHALAROPES Sp S F W ___ Greater Yellowlegs u o u o ___ Lesser Yellowlegs o o o - ___ Solitary Sandpiper o o o - ___ Willet u o o r ___ Spotted Sandpiper c u c c ___ Upland Sandpiper - - x - ___ Whimbrel - x - - ___ Long-billed Curlew o o o r ___ Marbled Godwit u u o - ___ Sanderling o - o - ___ Western Sandpiper c c c o ___ Least Sandpiper c u c c ___ Pectoral Sandpiper - - o x ___ Dunlin o - o o ___ Long-billed Dowitcher u u c c ___ Common Snipe u o u u ___ Wilson's Phalarope u u o - ___ Red-necked Phalarope r o o -
GULLS, TERNS & SKIMMERS Sp S F W ___ Parasitic Jaeger - x - - ___ Franklin's Gull - r r - ___ Bonaparte's Gull o - o - ___ Heerman's Gull - - x - ___ Ring-billed Gull u o c c ___ California Gull o o r - ___ Herring Gull - - x - ___ Glaucous-winged Gull - - x - ___ Sabine's Gull r - r - ___ Gull-billed Tern x - - - ___ Caspian Tern o u u r ___ Common Tern - o o - ___ Forster's Tern o u u o ___ Least Tern - x - - ___ Black Tern u u u - ___ Black Skimmer - x - -
PIGEONS & DOVES Sp S F W ___ Band-tailed Pigeon - - x - ___ White-winged Dove* c a u - ___ Mourning Dove* c a c c ___ Common Ground-Dove* u u u u
CUCKOOS & ROADRUNNERS Sp S F W ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* - u - - ___ Greater Roadrunner c c c c
BARN OWLS Sp S F W ___ Barn Owl o o o o
TYPICAL OWLS Sp S F W ___ Western Screech-Owl* c c c c ___ Great Horned Owl* c c c c ___ Burrowing Owl u o u u ___ Long-eared Owl r - r r ___ Short-eared Owl - - r - ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl - - - r
GOATSUCKERS Sp S F W ___ Lesser Nighthawk* c a c r ___ Common Poorwill* u u u -
SWIFTS Sp S F W ___ Vaux's Swift o - o - ___ White-throated Swift o o o o
HUMMINGBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Black-chinned Hummingbird* u u - - ___ Costa's Hummingbird* c c u o ___ Anna's Hummingbird c c c c ___ Calliope Hummingbird - - - x ___ Rufous Hummingbird o - o -
KINGFISHERS Sp S F W ___ Belted Kingfisher u - c u
WOODPECKERS Sp S F W ___ Lewis' Woodpecker - - x - ___ Gila Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Red-naped Sapsucker u - u u ___ Ladder-backed Woodpecker* c c c c ___ Northern Flicker (Red-shafted) u - c u ___ Northern Flicker (Gilded) o o o o
TYRANT FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher o - o - ___ Western Wood-Pewee c u c - ___ Willow Flycatcher u - u - ___ Hammond's Flycatcher o r o r ___ Dusky Flycatcher r - - r ___ Gray Flycatcher o - o o ___ Western Flycatcher c - c - ___ Black Phoebe* c o c c ___ Eastern Phoebe x - - - ___ Say's Phoebe* u - u u ___ Vermilion Flycatcher* u u u u ___ Ash-throated Flycatcher* c c c r ___ Brown-crested Flycatcher* c c - - ___ Cassin's Kingbird - r r - ___ Western Kingbird* c c u -
LARKS Sp S F W ___ Horned Lark - - - o
SWALLOWS Sp S F W ___ Purple Martin - - x - ___ Tree Swallow a o a a ___ Violet-green Swallow u - u - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow* c c c o ___ Bank Swallow u u u - ___ Cliff Swallow* c c c - ___ Barn Swallow u o u -
JAYS & CROWS Sp S F W ___ Western Scrub-Jay x - r x ___ Pinyon Jay - - x - ___ Clark's Nutcracker - - x - ___ Common Raven - - r -
VERDINS Sp S F W ___ Verdin* c c c c
NUTHATCHES Sp S F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch - - r - ___ White-breasted Nuthatch - - x -
CREEPERS Sp S F W ___ Brown Creeper - - - r
WRENS Sp S F W ___ Cactus Wren* u u u u ___ Rock Wren* u o u u ___ Bewick's Wren o - o o ___ House Wren c - c u ___ Marsh Wren* c c c c
KINGLETS & GNATCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet - - x - ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet a - a a ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher c - c c ___ Black-tailed Gnatcatcher* c c c c
SOLITAIRES & THRUSHES Sp S F W ___ Western Bluebird - - o o ___ Mountain Bluebird o - o o ___ Townsend's Solitaire o - o o ___ Swainson's Thrush u - u u ___ American Robin o - o o ___ Varied Thrush - - - x
MOCKINGBIRDS & THRASHERS Sp S F W ___ Northern Mockingbird* u u u u ___ Sage Thrasher o - o o ___ Bendire's Thrasher - - r - ___ Crissal Thrasher* c c c c
PIPITS Sp S F W ___ American Pipit (Water Pipit) c - c c
WAXWINGS Sp S F W ___ Cedar Waxwing o - o o
SILKY-FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W ___ Phainopepla* c u c c
SHRIKES Sp S F W ___ Loggerhead Shrike* c c c c
STARLINGS Sp S F W ___ European Starling* o u o o
VIREOS Sp S F W ___ Bell's Vireo* o o o - ___ Solitary Vireo u - u o ___ Warbling Vireo c - c - ___ Red-eyed Vireo x - - -
WOOD-WARBLERS Sp S F W ___ Orange-crowned Warbler c - c c ___ Nashville Warbler u - u - ___ Lucy's Warbler* c c - - ___ Northern Parula - - - x ___ Yellow Warbler c o c - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler (Myrtle) o - o o ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler (Audubon's) c - c c ___ Black-throated Gray Warbler u - u o ___ Townsend's Warbler u - u x ___ Hermit Warbler o - o - ___ Palm Warbler - - x - ___ Blackpoll Warbler - x - - ___ American Redstart r - r r ___ Northern Waterthrush - - x - ___ MacGillivray's Warbler c - c - ___ Common Yellowthroat* c c c c ___ Wilson's Warbler c - c o ___ Yellow-breasted Chat* c c c -
TANAGERS Sp S F W ___ Hepatic Tanager - - x - ___ Summer Tanager* o o o - ___ Western Tanager u u u -
GROSBEAKS & BUNTINGS Sp S F W ___ Black-headed Grosbeak c u c - ___ Blue Grosbeak* c c u - ___ Lazuli Bunting u - - u ___ Indigo Bunting o o - -
SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ Green-tailed Towhee u - u u ___ Rufous-sided Towhee o - o o ___ Abert's Towhee* a a a a ___ Chipping Sparrow u - u o ___ Brewer's Sparrow c - c o ___ Vesper Sparrow u - u r ___ Lark Sparrow o r o - ___ Black-throated Sparrow - o o o ___ Sage Sparrow - - u u ___ Lark Bunting - - r r ___ Savannah Sparrow c - c u ___ Grasshopper Sparrow x - - - ___ Fox Sparrow r - r - ___ Song Sparrow* c c c c ___ Lincoln's Sparrow u - c c ___ Swamp Sparrow o - o u ___ Golden-crowned Sparrow r - r r ___ White-crowned Sparrow a - a a ___ Dark-eyed Junco (Oregon) o - o o ___ Dark-eyed Junco (Gray-headed) - - r - ___ Lapland Longspur - - r - ___ Chestnut-collared Longspur - - o -
BLACKBIRDS Sp S F W ___ Red-winged Blackbird* a a a u ___ Western Meadowlark u - u c ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird* c u c - ___ Rusty Blackbird - - - x ___ Brewer's Blackbird u - c c ___ Great-tailed Grackle* c c c c ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* c c c u ___ Hooded Oriole* u u o - ___ Baltimore Oriole - - x - ___ Bullock's Oriole* u u u -
FINCHES Sp S F W ___ House Finch* c c c c ___ Pine Siskin r - o o ___ Lesser Goldfinch* u u u u ___ Lawrence's Goldfinch r r - - ___ American Goldfinch - - o o
OLD WORLD SPARROWS Sp S F W ___ House Sparrow* o o o o

For additional information contact:
                 Refuge Manager
                 Imperial National Wildlife Refuge
                 Martinez Lake
                 PO Box 72217
                 Yuma, Arizona 85365
                 Telephone: 520/783-3371
This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1994.  Birds of Imperial National 
     Wildlife Refuge.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  1994.  Birds of Imperial National 
     Wildlife Refuge.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online.
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govimperial.htm 
     (Version 22MAY98).

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service seeks to afford persons with disabilities full accessibility or reasonable accommodation. Contact Refuge Headquarters for information or to address accesibility problems. For the hearing impaired, use your State Relay System for the Deaf.
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