Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge lies in Spokane County of eastern Washington. Its 27 square miles of rugged scabrock, pine, aspen and grassland are interspersed with some 20 small lakes and over a hundred ponds, providing excellent habitat for the known birds of this list.
This folder lists 200 birds which you can expect to see in season. Another 17 birds have been reported but are not normally expected to be present. They are listed as accidentals at the end of the list.
Spring or fall migrations present the most spectacular show of birds. October is usually the best month to witness this biannual phenomenon, as thousands of ducks, geese, shorebirds and songbirds arrive on their southward migration. With these birds present in a setting of ponderosa, pine, colored aspen groves, and lakes, few places could be more beautiful or exciting to birding enthusiasts than Turnbull.
Well over a hundred species are known to nest here, so spring is a good time to observe nesting activities and young birds. Spring visits, however, can be limited by unpredictable weather and bad roads. Access is sometimes restricted during late summer due to high fire danger. During the winter months, all of the water areas except for one or two near headquarters may be frozen, temporarily restricting the wildlife use of the refuge. In any season, however, the early morning and evening hours are always best for bird watching.
A five mile auto tour route, hiking trails and a comfort station are located in the vicinity of refuge headquarters, six miles south of Cheney. Literature about the refuge and information on areas open for visitors' enjoyment are available at headquarters. Please feel free to ask questions.
Binoculars or spotting scopes are helpful for observing birds and a good field guide will help you identify what you see. You will see more birds if you are quiet and be sure to listen for calls and songs. You might also try sitting down and waiting for the birds to come by you.
GOOD LUCK! Whether you're a seasoned 'birder' or are just beginning, we wish you rewarding and memorable experiences from this visit to the refuge.
Sp - March - May
S - June - August
F -September -November
W - December - February
a - abundant (certain to be seen, very numerous)
c - common (should see in suitable habitat)
u - uncommon (might see in suitable habitat)
o - occasional (seen only a few times during a season)
r - rare (not seen every year)
* - nesting
# - Endangered Species
Turnbull Refuge Accidentals
The following birds have been seen at Turnbull but are either no longer present, are not normally found in this area, or do not normally stop during migration.
Arctic Loon Mountain Plover American White Pelican Upland Sandpiper Double-crested Cormorant Willet Ross' Goose Common Tern American Black Duck Least Flycatcher Eurasian Wigeon Gray Flycatcher Oldsquaw Blue Jay Wild Turkey Northern Waterthrush Golden-crowned Sparrow _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________
LOONS SP S F W ___ Common Loon r - r -
GREBES SP S F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe * c c c r ___ Horned Grebe * o r o r ___ Red-necked Grebe r r r - ___ Eared Grebe * c a c - ___ Western Grebe o r o -
BITTERNS, HERONS AND EGRETS SP S F W ___ American Bittern * u u u o ___ Great Blue Heron * c c c o ___ Great Egret - r - -
WATERFOWL SP S F W ___ Tundra Swan c - - o ___ Trumpeter Swan * u u u o ___ Greater White-fronted Goose o - o - ___ Snow Goose u - u - ___ Canada Goose * c c c u ___ Wood Duck * o r o - ___ Green-winged Teal * c c c u ___ Mallard * a a a u ___ Northern Pintail * c c c u ___ Blue-winged Teal * c a c - ___ Cinnamon Teal * c c c - ___ Northern Shoveler * c o c o ___ Gadwall * c c c o ___ American Wigeon * c c c u ___ Canvasback * u r u r ___ Redhead * c a c o ___ Ring-necked Duck * u u u o ___ Lesser Scaup * c c c o ___ White-winged Scoter - - r - ___ Common Goldeneye c o c o ___ Barrow's Goldeneye u - u o ___ Bufflehead * c o c o ___ Hooded Merganser * u o u r ___ Common Merganser u r u u ___ Red-breasted Merganser r - r - ___ Ruddy Duck * c a c o
VULTURES SP S F W ___ Turkey Vulture * - o o -
OSPREY, KITES, EAGLES AND HAWKS SP S F W ___ Osprey u r u - ___ Bald Eagle # u - u r ___ Northern Harrier * u c u o ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk u u u u ___ Cooper's Hawk r o r r ___ Northern Goshawk * o o o o ___ Swainson's Hawk o r o - ___ Red-tailed Hawk * c a c u ___ Ferruginous Hawk r r r - ___ Rough-legged Hawk r - r o ___ Golden Eagle u - u r
FALCONS SP S F W ___ American Kestrel * u c u r ___ Merlin o - o o ___ Peregrine Falcon # r r r - ___ Prairie Falcon r r r -
GALLINACEOUS BIRDS SP S F W ___ Gray Partridge * o o o o ___ Ring-necked Pheasant * u u u u ___ Ruffed Grouse * u u u u ___ California Quail * c c c c
RAILS SP S F W ___ Virginia Rail * u u u - ___ Sora * u u u - ___ American Coot * a a a r
CRANES SP S F W ___ Sandhill Crane - - r -
PLOVERS SP S F W ___ Black-bellied Plover - r r - ___ American Golden Plover - - r - ___ Semipalmated Plover o o o - ___ Killdeer * a a a o
STILTS AND AVOCETS SP S F W ___ Black-necked Stilt - r - - ___ American Avocet u r u -
SHOREBIRDS SP S F W ___ Greater Yellowlegs c u u - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs u c c - ___ Solitary Sandpiper u u u - ___ Spotted Sandpiper * c c c - ___ Long-billed Curlew r - r - ___ Marbled Godwit - r r - ___ Sanderling - - u - ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper u u u - ___ Western Sandpiper u c c - ___ Least Sandpiper u u c - ___ Baird's Sandpiper r u c - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper r r o - ___ Dunlin r - u - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher u u c -
SNIPE SP S F W ___ Common Snipe * u u u r
PHALAROPES SP S F W ___ Wilson's Phalarope * u u u - ___ Red-necked Phalarope u u u -
GULLS AND TERNS SP S F W ___ Franklin's Gull r r r - ___ Bonaparte's Gull r r r - ___ Ring-billed Gull u u u - ___ California Gull u u u - ___ Forster's Tern - r - - ___ Black Tern * c a u -
DOVES SP S F W ___ Mourning Dove c a c o
OWLS SP S F W ___ Barn Owl r r r r ___ Western Screech-Owl u u u u ___ Great Horned Owl * c c c c ___ Northern Pygmy-Owl u - u u ___ Long-eared Owl * u u u u ___ Short-eared Owl * o o o o ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl o o o r
GOATSUCKERS SP S F W ___ Common Nighthawk * - c u -
SWIFTS SP S F W ___ Vaux's Swift o - - -
HUMMINGBIRDS SP S F W ___ Black-chinned Hummingbird * u u u - ___ Calliope Hummingbird * o o o - ___ Rufous Hummingbird * o o o -
KINGFISHERS SP S F W ___ Belted Kingfisher * u c o o
WOODPECKERS SP S F W ___ Lewis' Woodpecker * r r r - ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker * u c u - ___ Downy Woodpecker * c c c c ___ Hairy Woodpecker * u u u c ___ Northern Flicker * a a a a
FLYCATCHERS SP S F W ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher o o - - ___ Western Wood-Pewee* c a c - ___ Willow Flycatcher * a a u - ___ Hammond's Flycatcher u - u - ___ Dusky Flycatcher u u u - ___ Western Flycatcher * o o o - ___ Say's Phoebe * u r u - ___ Western Kingbird * o o o - ___ Eastern Kingbird * c a c -
LARKS SP S F W ___ Horned Lark * u u u u
SWALLOWS SP S F W ___ Tree Swallow * a a c - ___ Violet-green Swallow* - u r u ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow * o r o - ___ Bank Swallow * c u a - ___ Cliff Swallow * c c a - ___ Barn Swallow * c a c -
JAYS, MAGPIES AND CROWS SP S F W ___ Steller's Jay - - - r ___ Clark's Nutcracker r r r r ___ Black-billed Magpie * c a a c ___ American Crow o o o - ___ Common Raven o o o o
CHICKADEES AND TITMICE SP S F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee * c c c c ___ Mountain Chickadee * c c c c
NUTHATCHES SP S F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch * o o o o ___ White-breasted Nuthatch * c u c c ___ Pygmy Nuthatch * a a a a
CREEPERS SP S F W ___ Brown Creeper * o r o o
WRENS SP S F W ___ Rock Wren * o u o o ___ Canyon Wren u u u u ___ House Wren * c a u - ___ Winter Wren r - r o ___ Marsh Wren * a a c r
KINGLETS, BLUEBIRDS AND THRUSHES SP S F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet u o o u ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet * - u r o ___ Western Bluebird * u u c - ___ Mountain Bluebird * c o c - ___ Townsend's Solitaire * o r o o ___ Veery * u u - - ___ Swainson's Thrush o - o - ___ Hermit Thrush o - o - ___ American Robin * c a c o ___ Varied Thrush o - o r
MOCKINGBIRDS AND THRASHERS SP S F W ___ Gray Catbird * o o o - ___ Northern Mockingbird r - - -
WAGTAILS AND PIPITS SP S F W ___ Water Pipit c - c -
WAXWINGS SP S F W ___ Bohemian Waxwing * - r u u ___ Cedar Waxwing * - u u -
SHRIKES SP S F W ___ Northern Shrike u - u c ___ Loggerhead Shrike o r o -
STARLINGS AND MYNAS SP S F W ___ European Starling a c c -
VIREOS SP S F W ___ Solitary Vireo * o u o - ___ Warbling Vireo * u u u - ___ Red-eyed Vireo * o o - -
WARBLERS SP S F W ___ Orange-crowned Warbler o - o - ___ Nashville Warbler o o o - ___ Yellow Warbler * c a c - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler c c c - ___ Townsend's Warbler o - o - ___ American Redstart * u u - - ___ MacGillivray's Warbler o o o - ___ Common Yellowthroat * c c c - ___ Wilson's Warbler o o o - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat o o - -
TANAGERS SP S F W ___ Western Tanager * o r o -
GROSBEAKS AND BUNTINGS SP S F W ___ Black-headed Grosbeak * o u o - ___ Lazuli Bunting * r r - -
TOWHEES AND SPARROWS SP S F W ___ Rufous-sided Towhee o u u - ___ American Tree Sparrow o - o o ___ Chipping Sparrow * c a c - ___ Vesper Sparrow * c a u - ___ Lark Sparrow * - u u - ___ Savannah Sparrow * c c c - ___ Grasshopper Sparrow* - u - - ___ Fox Sparrow o r o - ___ Song Sparrow * c a c u ___ Lincoln's Sparrow o - o - ___ White-throated Sparrow - - r - ___ White-crowned Sparrow * c r a r ___ Dark-eyed Junco * a c a a
BLACKBIRDS, MEADOWLARKS AND ORIOLES SP S F W ___ Red-winged Blackbird * a a a - ___ Western Meadowlark * c a a o ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird * a a u - ___ Brewer's Blackbird * c c c - ___ Brown-headed Cowbird * c c - - ___ Northern Oriole * o u - -
FINCHES SP S F W ___ Rosy Finch - - r o ___ Pine Grosbeak r - - r ___ Cassin's Finch * o o o o ___ House Finch * o u u o ___ Red Crossbill * u o u - ___ Common Redpoll o - o o ___ Pine Siskin r o o o ___ American Goldfinch * u c c r ___ Evening Grosbeak u u u u
WEAVER FINCHES SP S F W ___ House Sparrow * u u u -
Refuge Manager Turnbull NWR Route 3 Box 385 Cheney, WA 99004 Tel.# (509) 235-4723This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Birds of Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge, Washington. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated.This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993. Birds of Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge, Washington. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. http://www.npwrc.usgs.govturnbull.htm (Version 22MAY98).