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Bird Checklists of the United States

Salmon District

Salmon, Idaho


East Central Idaho is a six million acre area of mostly public and national forest lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Forest Service, the State of Idaho, and Lemhi and Custer counties. The area encompasses the headwaters of Idaho's "River of No Return" - the Salmon River.

The terrain is generally steep, and bird habitats vary from high, glaciated mountains to low, arid valleys. Elevation varies from 2,900 feet on the lower Salmon River to 12,655 feet on Borah Peak, the highest point in Idaho. Some bird species are restricted to particular habitat types. The Willow Flycatcher is found only in shrubby-riparian area. Other species, such as the American Robin, may be found in a wide range of habitats. The most common habitats in the area are sagebrush-grassland and coniferous forest, but the most abundant birdlife is found in lower elevation deciduous-riparian habitats along streams and rivers.

This checklist is compiled from the book Birds of East Central Idaho by Hadley Roberts (1992), and is based on more than 1,500 days of birding observations by the author and others.

To date, 245 species of birds have been recorded in this area. Sixty-nine of these species are yearlong residents, 93 are summer residents only, 12 are winter visitors, 60 are migrants; 11 are "accidentals" (observed outside of their normal range). Special status species are also noted in parentheses next to the bird's name (see legend). These include threatened or endangered species, official candidates for listing as threatened or endangered, and sensitive species of special management concern to BLM and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game.

In recent years, agencies and conservation groups have expressed growing concern about the fate of neotropical migratory birds. This group includes such familiar birds as orioles, hummingbirds, swallows, warblers, vireos, and tanagers. These are birds that breed in North America and Canada and winter in Mexico and Latin America. Many of these species are declining in numbers due to effects of expanding human populations. Intensive clearing, cultivation and development are causing fragmentation and destruction of natural habitats on breeding grounds, wintering areas, and along migration routes.

In this list, a capital "N" in parentheses next to the common name means that the entire North American population of this neotropical migrant normally migrates to wintering areas in the tropics south of the United States. A small "n" means that at least part of the population migrates to wintering areas south of the United States.

The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, and Partners in Flight program (a coalition of state and federal agencies, conservation organizations, and academic institutions), have organized efforts to monitor neotropical bird populations and find ways to help prevent further population declines.

The order in which the birds appear in the checklist follows the American Ornithologist's Union Checklist of North American Birds (Sixth Edition), published in 1983. Common names are from the same reference.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The list includes birds actually seen and recorded by numerous Bureau of Land Management, Forest Service and Idaho Department of Fish and Game personnel, Student Conservation Association volunteers and other knowledgeable local birders. It also contains records from Birds of Idaho by Thomas D. Burleigh, (1972, The Caxton Printers, Ltd., Caldwell, Idaho) and other records from ornithological journals. The list was prepared by Hadley Roberts and Jerry Gregson of Salmon, Idaho.

Information on sightings of birds not included in this checklist would be greatly appreciated. Please report sightings to the Nongame Wildlife Program Coordinator, Bureau of Land Management, P.O. Box 430, Salmon, Idaho, 83467.

LEGEND

ABUNDANCE

STATUS SEASON SPECIAL CLASSES

Species Status Habitat Abundance During
LOONS S SU F W ___ Red-throated Loon M Large lakes V ___ Common Loon M Large lakes V V
GREBES S SU F W ___ Pied-billed Grebe M Marshy lakes, ponds V V ___ Horned Grebe M Marshy lakes, ponds U R ___ Red-necked Grebe M Marshy lakes, ponds V V ___ Eared Grebe M Marshy lakes, ponds U U ___ Western Grebe M Rivers, ponds R V R
PELICANS S SU F W ___ American White Pelican M Rivers V V
CORMORANTS S SU F W ___ Double-crested Cormorant M Rivers V V
HERONS S SU F W ___ Great Blue Heron Re Rivers, ponds, marshes C C C U ___ Snowy Egret M Rivers V ___ Black-crowned Night-Heron M Rivers V
IBISES S SU F W ___ White-faced Ibis (S) M Cattail marshes V
SWANS, GEESE AND DUCKS S SU F W ___ Tundra Swan (C) M Rivers, ponds, marshes R R R ___ Trumpeter Swan M Rivers, ponds, marshes V V ___ Greater White-fronted Goose M Rivers, ponds, fields V ___ Snow Goose M Rivers, ponds, fields U U ___ Ross' Goose M Rivers, ponds, fields V ___ Brant Ac River V ___ Canada Goose Re Rivers, ponds, fields C C C C ___ Wood Duck SR Rivers, ponds, streams U U U V ___ Green-winged Teal Re Rivers, ponds, marshes U U C U ___ Mallard Re Rivers, ponds, marshes A C A A ___ Northern Pintail M Rivers, ponds, marshes U R U V ___ Blue-winged Teal SR Rivers, ponds, marshes U U U ___ Cinnamon Teal SR Rivers, ponds, marshes U U ___ Northern Shoveler M Rivers, ponds, marshes C R U ___ Gadwall M Rivers, ponds, marshes R R ___ American Wigeon M Rivers, ponds, marshes U R R V ___ Canvasback M Rivers, ponds, marshes U ___ Redhead M Rivers, ponds, marshes U R R ___ Ring-necked Duck M Rivers, ponds, marshes U R R ___ Lesser Scaup M Rivers, ponds, marshes U V R V ___ Harlequin Duck M Rivers, streams V V V ___ Common Goldeneye WV Rivers U U C ___ Barrow's Goldeneye SR Lakes U R ___ Bufflehead M Rivers, lakes U V V U ___ Hooded Merganser M Rivers R V ___ Common Merganser Re Rivers, lakes C C C C ___ Red-breasted Merganser M Rivers, lakes R R ___ Ruddy Duck M Rivers, ponds, marshes U R R
AMERICAN VULTURES S SU F W ___ Black Vulture Ac Open country V ___ Turkey Vulture (n) M Open country R R R
HAWKS, EAGLES AND OSPREYS S SU F W ___ Osprey (N) SR Rivers, lakes U U U ___ Bald Eagle (E) Re Rivers, lakes U R U C ___ Northern Harrier (n) Re Open fields, marshes U U U R ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk (n) Re Forest thickets R R R R ___ Cooper's Hawk (n) Re Canyons, broken timber R R R R ___ Northern Goshawk (C,n) Re Coniferous forest R R R R ___ Swainson's Hawk (S,N) SR Sagebrush, grassland V V V ___ Red-tailed Hawk (n) Re Sagebrush, open timber U U U U ___ Ferruginous Hawk (C,N) M Sagebrush, grassland V V ___ Rough-legged Hawk WV Sagebrush, grassland U U U ___ Golden Eagle Re Canyons, Sagebrush U U U U
FALCONS S SU F W ___ American Kestrel (n) Re Coniferous forest edge C C C R ___ Merlin (S,n) WV Open country V V ___ Peregrine falcon (E,n) Re Canyons, cliffs V V V V ___ Prairie Falcon (n) Re Open mountains, sagebrush U U U U
PARTRIDGES, PHEASANTS, GROUSE, TURKEYS AND QUAIL S SU F W ___ Gray Partridge Re Sagebrush, grasslands U U U U ___ Chukar Re Canyons, sagebrush C C C C ___ Ring-necked Pheasant Re Agricultural areas C C C C ___ Spruce Grouse Re Dense coniferous forest U U U U ___ Blue Grouse Re Open coniferous forest C C C C ___ Ruffed Grouse Re Shrubby riparian areas U U U U ___ Sage Grouse Re Sagebrush C C C C ___ Wild Turkey Re Shrubby riparian areas U U U U ___ Gambel's Quail (S) Re Shrublands, agriculture U U U U
RAILS AND COOTS S SU F W ___ Virginia Rail M Marshes V ___ Sora SR Marshes U U V ___ American Coot SR Ponds, marshes C U U V
CRANES S SU F W ___ Sandhill Crane SR Fields, marshes U U V
PLOVERS S SU F W ___ Semipalmated Plover M Shores, mud flats V ___ Killdeer (n) Re Shores, wet meadows C C C U ___ Mountain Plover (N) Ac Grasslands V
AVOCETS S SU F W ___ American Avocet M Ponds, marshes U R
SANDPIPERS AND PHALAROPES S SU F W ___ Greater Yellowlegs M Ponds, mud flats R V V ___ Lesser Yellowlegs M Ponds, mud flats V ___ Solitary Sandpiper M Lakes, ponds, rivers V V ___ Willet SR Rivers, marshes, fields R R ___ Spotted Sandpiper SR Rivers, lakes, ponds C C U V ___ Long-billed Curlew (C,N) SR Grasslands, marshes U U ___ Marbled Godwit M Shores, mud flats V ___ Western Sandpiper M Shores, mud flats V R ___ Least Sandpiper M Shores, mud flats V ___ Dunlin M Shores, mud flats V ___ Long-billed Dowitcher M Shores, mud flats V V ___ Common Snipe SR Streams, marshes, meadows U C C R ___ Wilson's Phalarope SR Ponds, marshes C U ___ Red-necked Phalarope M Ponds, marshes R V
GULLS AND TERNS S SU F W ___ Franklin's Gull M Rivers, ponds, fields R ___ Bonaparte's Gull M Rivers, ponds, fields R R ___ Ring-billed Gull M Rivers, ponds, fields R R R ___ California Gull M Rivers, ponds, fields R R ___ Herring Gull M Rivers, ponds, fields V ___ Caspian Tern M Lakes V ___ Forster's Tern M Rivers, ponds V ___ Black Tern (C) M Rivers, ponds R
PIGEONS AND DOVES S SU F W ___ Rock Dove Re Urban areas A A A A ___ Band-tailed Pigeon (N) M Canyon bottoms V ___ Mourning Dove (n) SR Sagebrush, grasslands C C U V
OWLS S SU F W ___ Barn Owl (S,N) Ac Buildings V ___ Flammulated Owl SR Mature ponderosa pine U U ___ Western Screech-Owl Re Canyons, riparian areas V V V V ___ Great Horned Owl Re Open forests, shrublands U U U U ___ Northern Pygmy-Owl (S) Re Dense forests, riparian R R R R ___ Burrowing Owl (S,N) SR Sagebrush V ___ Barred Owl Ac Coniferous forest V ___ Great Gray Owl (S) Re Dense forest, meadows V V V V ___ Long-eared Owl (n) Re Open country, riparian V V V V ___ Short-eared Owl (n) SR Meadows, fields R R ___ Boreal Owl (S) Re Old growth coniferous forest V V V V ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl Re Coniferous forest, riparian V V V V
GOATSUCKERS S SU F W ___ Common Nighthawk (N) SR Open country C C ___ Common Poorwill (N) SR Open country R
SWIFTS S SU F W ___ White-throated Swift (N) SR Canyons, cliffs U U
HUMMINGBIRDS S SU F W ___ Black-chinned Hummingbird (N) SR Urban V V ___ Calliope Hummingbird (N) SR Coniferous forest, urban U U ___ Broad-tailed Hummingbird (N) SR Urban V V ___ Rufous Hummingbird (N) SR Coniferous forest, urban U U
KINGFISHERS S SU F W ___ Belted Kingfisher (n) Re Rivers, streams U U U U
WOODPECKERS S SU F W ___ Lewis' Woodpecker (N) SR Cottonwoods, riparian C C R V ___ Red-naped Sapsucker (N) SR Quaking aspen groves U U ___ Williamson's Sapsucker (N) SR Open coniferous forest R R V ___ Downy Woodpecker Re Shrubby riparian areas U U U U ___ Hairy Woodpecker Re Coniferous forest U U U U ___ Three-toed Woodpecker (S) Re Dense coniferous forest R R R R ___ Black-backed Woodpecker Re Coniferous forest V V V V ___ Northern Flicker Re Open forests C C C R ___ Pileated Woodpecker Re Old growth Douglas-fir U U U U
FLYCATCHERS S SU F W ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher (N) SR Coniferous forest U U ___ Western Wood Peewee (N) SR Cottonwoods, riparian U U ___ Willow Flycatcher (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas C C ___ Hammond's Flycatcher (N) SR Coniferous forest U U ___ Dusky Flycatcher (N) SR Coniferous forest R R ___ Cordilleran Flycatcher (N) SR Cottonwoods V ___ Black Phoebe Ac Open country V ___ Say's Phoebe (N) SR Sagebrush, riparian areas V V ___ Ash-throated Flycatcher (N) SR Coniferous forest V V ___ Western Kingbird (N) SR Riparian areas, sagebrush U U ___ Eastern Kingbird (N) SR Riparian areas U U
LARKS S SU F W ___ Horned Lark (n) Re Sagebrush, grasslands A A A A
SWALLOWS S SU F W ___ Tree Swallow (N) SR Quacking aspen, riparian C C ___ Violet-green Swallow (N) SR Riparian areas, urban C C ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow (N) SR Riparian areas C C ___ Bank Swallow (N) SR Riparian areas C C ___ Cliff Swallow (N) SR Rivers, cliffs, buildings A A U ___ Barn Swallow (N) SR Riparian areas, buildings C C
JAYS, MAGPIES AND CROWS S SU F W ___ Gray Jay Re Coniferous forest U U U U ___ Stellar's Jay Re Coniferous forest U U U U ___ Blue Jay Ac Urban V ___ Clark's Nutcracker Re Coniferous forest C C C C ___ Black-billed Magpie Re Agricultural lands A A A A ___ American Crow Re Agricultural lands C C C C ___ Common Raven Re Coniferous forest C C C C
CHICKADEES S SU F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee Re Deciduous forest, riparian C C C C ___ Mountain Chickadee Re Coniferous forest A A A U ___ Chestnut-backed Chickadee WV Urban V
NUTHATCHES S SU F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch Re Coniferous forest C C C U ___ White-breasted Nuthatch Re Coniferous forest U U U R ___ Pygmy Nuthatch (S) Re Ponderosa pine forest U U U U
CREEPERS S SU F W ___ Brown Creeper (n) Re Coniferous forest U U U R
WRENS S SU F W ___ Rock Wren (n) SR Rocky areas, sagebrush U U U V ___ Canyon Wren Re Rocky canyons, cliffs U U U U ___ House Wren (N) SR Quaking aspen, riparian U U ___ Winter Wren Re Coniferous forest, logs R R R R ___ Marsh Wren (n) SR Cattail marshes R R
DIPPERS S SU F W ___ American Dipper Re Rivers, streams, lakes U U U U
KINGLETS AND THRUSHES S SU F W ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet (n) SR Coniferous forest, riparian U U U V ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet SR Coniferous forest C C R ___ Western Bluebird (N) SR Shrublands, old burns V ___ Mountain Bluebird (n) SR Coniferous forest edge C C C U ___ Townsend's Solitaire (n) Re Coniferous forest U U U R ___ Veery (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas C C ___ Swainson's Thrush (N) SR Dense coniferous forest U U ___ Hermit Thrush (N) SR Dense coniferous forest C C U ___ American Robin (n) Re Open forests, urban areas A A C R ___ Varied Thrush M Coniferous forest V V
MOCKINGBIRDS AND THRASHERS S SU F W ___ Gray Catbird (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas R R ___ Northern Mockingbird (N) Ac Open coniferous forest V ___ Sage Thrasher (N) SR Sagebrush C C
PIPITS S SU F W ___ American Pipit (n) SR Alpine areas, fields U U C
WAXWINGS S SU F W ___ Bohemian Waxwing WV Riparian areas, urban C C C ___ Cedar Waxwing (n) SR Riparian areas, urban R C C R
SHRIKES S SU F W ___ Northern Shrike WV Sagebrush, riparian areas V V ___ Loggerhead Shrike (n) WV Sagebrush, riparian areas V V V
STARLINGS S SU F W ___ European Starling Re Farms, urban areas A A A A
VIREOS S SU F W ___ Solitary Vireo (N) SR Coniferous forest V V ___ Warbling Vireo (N) SR Quaking aspen, riparian U U ___ Red-eyed Vireo (N) SR Cottonwoods, riparian V V
WOOD WARBLERS, TANAGERS, GROSBEAKS, SPARROWS AND BLACKBIRDS S SU F W ___ Orange-crowned Warbler (N) SR Deciduous forest, riparian R ___ Nashville Warbler (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas U ___ Yellow Warbler (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas C C ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler (n) SR Coniferous forest, urban C C U ___ Black-throated Gray Warbler (N) M Shrubby riparian areas V ___ Townsend's Warbler (N) M Coniferous forest, riparian U U ___ Black & White Warbler (N) M Shrubby riparian areas V ___ American Redstart (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas V V ___ Northern Waterthrush (N) M Shrubby riparian areas V ___ McGillivray's Warbler (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas U U ___ Common Yellowthroat (N) SR Cattails, riparian areas U U ___ Wilson's Warbler (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas R R ___ Yellow-breasted Chat (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas U U ___ Western Tanager (N) SR Coniferous forest C C ___ Black-headed Grosbeak (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas U U ___ Lazuli Bunting (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas C C ___ Indigo Bunting (N) Ac Urban areas V ___ Green-tailed Towhee (N) SR Sagebrush, riparian areas V V ___ Rufous-sided Towhee (n) SR Coniferous forest, riparian U U R ___ American Tree Sparrow WV Riparian areas, sagebrush R R U ___ Chipping Sparrow (N) SR Coniferous forest edge C C ___ Brewer's Sparrow (N) SR Sagebrush C C ___ Vesper Sparrow (N) SR Sagebrush C C ___ Lark Sparrow (N) SR Sagebrush, riparian areas V V ___ Black-throated Sparrow (N) Ac Sagebrush V ___ Sage Sparrow (N) SR Sagebrush V ___ Lark Bunting (N) SR Sagebrush, grassland V ___ Savannah Sparrow (N) SR Meadows, pastures U U R ___ Fox Sparrow (n) SR Shrubby riparian areas R R ___ Song Sparrow Re Shrubby riparian areas C C C U ___ Lincoln's Sparrow (N) SR Shrubby riparian areas V V V ___ White Throated Sparrow (N) Ac Shrubby riparian areas V ___ White-crowned Sparrow (N) SR Riparian areas, sagebrush U U U V ___ Harris' Sparrow M Grasslands V V ___ Dark-eyed Junco (n) Re Coniferous forest, riparian A A A A ___ Snow Bunting WV Sagebrush R U U ___ Bobolink (N) SR Grassy fields, pastures U U ___ Red-winged Blackbird (n) Re Riparian areas, cattails A A A U ___ Western Meadowlark (n) SR Sagebrush, riparian areas C C C V ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird (N) SR Cattail marshes C C R ___ Brewer's Blackbird (n) SR Riparian areas, fields A A A U ___ Common Grackle (N) SR Urban areas V V V ___ Brown-headed Cowbird (N) SR Riparian areas, sagebrush U U ___ Northern Oriole (N) SR Cottonwoods, riparian areas U U
FINCHES S SU F W ___ Rosy Finch Re Alpine areas, fields U U U A ___ Pine Grosbeak Re Coniferous forest U U U U ___ Purple Finch M Riparian areas, urban R ___ Cassin's Finch (n) SR Coniferous forest U U U ___ House Finch WV Riparian areas, urban R R R ___ Red Crossbill Re Coniferous forest, riparian U U U U ___ White-winged Crossbill WV Coniferous forest V ___ Common Redpoll WV Shrubby riparian areas U U U ___ Pine Siskin Re Coniferous forest, urban C C C U ___ American Goldfinch Re Riparian areas, fields U U U U ___ Evening Grosbeak Re Coniferous forest, urban C C C C
OLD WORLD SPARROWS S SU F W ___ House Sparrow Re Urban areas, ranches A A A A

For Further Information, Contact:
      U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
      BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT
      Salmon District Office
      Highway 93, South
      P.O. Box 430
      Salmon, Idaho 83467-0430
      (208)756-5400

PARTNERS IN FLIGHT
A partnership of government agencies, educational institutions and conservation organizations in Canada, the U.S.,Latin America and the Caribbean working for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds and their habitats.
This resource is based on the following source:
Roberts, Hadley and Jerry Gregson.  January 1994.  Idaho, Salmon District Bird
      Guide. United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management
      and Partners in Flight.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
Roberts, Hadley and Jerry Gregson.  January 1994.  Idaho, Salmon District Bird
      Guide. United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management
      and Partners in Flight.  Unpaginated.  Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie
      Wildlife Research Center Online.
      http://www.npwrc.usgs.govsalmon.htm
      (Version 10JUL2001)

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