Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
The Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge takes its name from the river that flows through its northern portion. It was established in 1939 as one of the early game refuges, and now covers about 40,000 acres (16,200 ha). Elevations range from 1,800 feet (549 m) on the western lowlands of the Little Pend Oreille River Valley to Olson Peak's 5,610-foot (1,710 m) summit on the eastern boundary.
Washington State and the Bureau of Land Management also manage several thousand acres of publically-owned land in the area. Many of these parcels are nestled among the private lands in the valleys and towards the southeastern end of the area. Much of the private land can be viewed from the roads or after obtaining a landowner's permission.
The area contains 2 mountain ranges, oriented north-south: the Kettle River Range and the Selkirk Crest. Numerous glacial valleys cut the main ridges and diversify the topography, which ranges from rounded moutain slopes at lower elevations to high peaks and basins at about 7,300 feet (2,225 m). Streams, rivers, bogs, marshes, and small and large lakes are found throughout the area. Three distinctly different zomes, each with its own unique climate, topography, and vegetation are found in the major river watersheds. These zones are the Sanpoil/Curlew River Valleys. the Kettle/Colville/Columbia River Valleys, and the Pend Oreille River Valley. Precipitation and density of vegetation increase with altitude and lie on a southwest-to-northwest gradient. Habitats grade from the ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests that occupy the drier, western portion, to western red-cedar and hemlock forests on the moister east side. Agricultural fields and grasslands cover most valley bottoms.
Wildlife The great biodiversity of the State of Washington makes compiling a local checklist difficult. Though none of the area is a desert, dry-land species common farther west, such as the least chipmunk, might be found. On the other end of the habitat spectrum, species that occupy the more moist, boreal forests, even the rare wolverine, are included. For some migratory birds a judgment was made as to their significance. Thus sandhill crane, which migrated through the Colville Valley, was omitted and the "3-records-only" broad-winged hawk was included.
C - Common: abundant to uncommon
U - Uncommon: local and not present in all suitable habitats
R - Rare: widely spaced, not always present, or lacking verification
XR - Extremely rare: seldom present but fair number of records
(REC) - Recorded: few accepted records.
R - Resident: sedentary, or altitudinal migrant within the area. Breeds here or nearby. Always present, but not necessarily the same individuals.
M - Migrant: non-breeding species or extralimital breeders in transit between summer and winter ranges
SB - Summer breeder: breeding species present only in summer.
W - Winter: non-breeding species on its winter range. In some species, arrival may be as early as September and departure as late as April. This also refers to individuals that wander out of their range in winter.
AG - Agriculture: human-managed habitat, farmlands, and open rangelands.
UB - Urban: towns and small communities.
WL - Wetlands: wide streams, marshes, rivers and lakes.
BS - Bogs and streams: mainly in mountainous forests
FL - Forested lands: low to medium elevation.
SA - Subalpine: near timberline and above.
TR - Transition: dry hillsides, open forests; mainly in the western part of the region.
AH - All habitats: species that can be expected anywhere.
LK - Lake: applies only to fish.
LOONS HABITAT STATUS ___ Common Loon WL XRSB UM
GREBES HABITAT STATUS ___ Pied-billed Grebe WL UR ___ Eared Grebe WL CSB ___ Horned Grebe WL UM ___ Red-necked Grebe WL USB ___ Western Grebe WL USB
CORMORANTS HABITAT STATUS ___ Double-crested Cormorant WL RSB
BITTERNS AND HERONS HABITAT STATUS ___ American Bittern WL USB ___ Great Blue Heron WL BS CR
WATERFOWL HABITAT STATUS ___ Tundra Swan WL CM ___ Greater White-fronted Goose AG WL RM ___ Snow Goose AG WL UM UW ___ Canada Goose AG WL CR ___ Mallard AG WL CR ___ Gadwall WL CR ___ American Wigeon WL CR ___ Redhead WL CSB RW ___ Lesser Scaup WL RSB CW ___ Greater Scaup WL UW ___ Cinnamon Teal WL USB ___ Blue-winged Teal WL USB ___ Green-winged Teal WL UR ___ Wood Duck WL FL UR ___ Ring-necked Duck WL FL UR ___ Northern Pintail WL UR CM ___ Northern Shoveler WL UR RW ___ Canvasback WL UR CM ___ Hooded Merganser WL FL UR ___ Common Merganser WL UR ___ Barrow's Goldeneye WL RR CW ___ Common Goldeneye WL RR CW ___ Ruddy Duck WL CR RW ___ Harlequin Duck FL RSB ___ Bufflehead WL UR CW ___ Oldsquaw WL XRM ___ White-winged Scoter WL RW
VULTURES HABITAT STATUS ___ Turkey Vulture AG TR USB
EAGLES AND HAWKS HABITAT STATUS ___ Osprey WL CSB ___ Bald Eagle WL CW RR ___ Golden Eagle SA RR UM ___ Northern Harrier AG UR RW ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk FL SA UR ___ Cooper's Hawk FL SA UR ___ Northern Goshawk FL SA RR ___ Swainson's Hawk AG XRSB ___ Broad-winged Hawk SA (REC)M ___ Red-tailed Hawk AH CR ___ Rough-legged Hawk AG CW ___ Ferruginous Hawk AG XRM
FALCONS HABITAT STATUS ___ American Kestrel AG UB CR ___ Merlin AG FL XRR WW ___ Peregrine Falcon AH XRR XRM ___ Prairie Falcon TR AG RR
GROUSE AND ALLIES HABITAT STATUS ___ Gray Partridge AG UR ___ Spruce (Franklin's) Grouse FL SA RR ___ Ring-necked Pheasant AG CR ___ Blue Grouse FL SA CR ___ Ruffed Grouse FL CR ___ Wild Turkey AG FL UR ___ California Quail AG UB CR ___ Chukar TR XRR
RAILS HABITAT STATUS ___ Virginia Rail WL USB ___ Sora WL CSB ___ American Coot WL UR RW
PLOVERS HABITAT STATUS ___ Killdeer AG CSB ___ Semipalmated Plover WL UM
SANDPIPERS HABITAT STATUS ___ Greater Yellowlegs WL CM ___ Lesser Yellowlegs WL CM ___ Solitary Sandpiper AG WL UM ___ Spotted Sandpiper WL CSB ___ Western Sandpiper WL UM ___ Least Sandpiper WL UM ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper WL RM ___ Pectoral Sandpiper WL UM ___ Long-billed Dowitcher WL CM ___ Common Snipe AG WL UR ___ Wilson's Phalarope WL RSB ___ Red-necked Phalarope WL XRM
GULLS AND TERNS HABITAT STATUS ___ Bonaparte's Gull WL RM ___ Ring-billed Gull AG WL CR ___ California Gull AG WL UM ___ Herring Gull AG WL RW ___ Caspian Gull WL UM ___ Forster's Gull WL RSB ___ Black Tern WL XRB
DOVES HABITAT STATUS ___ Mourning Dove AG UB FL UR RW ___ Rock Dove AG UB CR
OWLS HABITAT STATUS ___ Barn Owl AG TR UR ___ Western Screech-Owl AG FL UR ___ Great Horned Owl AG FL CR ___ Snowy Owl AG RW ___ Northern Hawk Owl AH XRW ___ Barred Owl FL UR ___ Long-eared Owl AG FL UR ___ Short-eared Owl AG UR ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl FL CR ___ Boreal Owl SA XRR ___ Flammulated Owl FL RSB ___ Northern Pygmy-Owl FL CR ___ Great Gray Owl BS FL SA XRR
NIGHTJARS HABITAT STATUS ___ Common Nighthawk AG UB TR CSB ___ Common Poorwill TR FL RSB
SWIFTS HABITAT STATUS ___ Vaux's Swift FL SA USB ___ White-throated Swift TR USB ___ Black Swift FL SA XRSB
HUMMINGBIRDS HABITAT STATUS ___ Black-chinned Hummingbird AH USB ___ Rufous Hummingbird AH CSB ___ Calliope Hummingbird AH USB
KINGFISHERS HABITAT STATUS ___ Belted Kingfisher AG WL CSB
WOODPECKERS HABITAT STATUS ___ Lewis' Woodpecker FL TR USB ___ Red-naped Sapsucker AG FL CSB ___ Downy Woodpecker AH CR ___ Hairy Woodpecker AH CR ___ Northern Flicker AH CR ___ Pileated Woodpecker FL SA UR ___ Black-backed Woodpecker FL SA UR ___ Three-toed Woodpecker FL SA UR ___ White-headed Woodpecker FL TR RR ___ Williamson's Sapsucker FT TR RSB
FLYCATCHERS HABITAT STATUS ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher FL SA USB ___ Western Wood-Pewee AH CSB ___ Willow Flycatcher AG WL USB ___ Pacific Slope Flycatcher AG FL USB ___ Least Flycatcher AG FL RSB ___ Hammond's Flycatcher FL CSB ___ Dusky Flycatcher FL USB ___ Say's Phoebe AG TR USB ___ Eastern Kingbird AG WL CSB ___ Western Kingbird AG CSB
LARKS HABITAT STATUS ___ Horned Lark AG USB
SWALLOWS HABITAT STATUS ___ Tree Swallow AH CSB ___ Violet-green Swallow AH CSB ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow WL CSB ___ Bank Swallow AG WL USB CM ___ Cliff Swallow AH CSB ___ Barn Swallow AG CSB
CROWS, MAGPIES AND JAYS HABITAT STATUS ___ Blue Jay UB FL XRW ___ Steller's Jay FL SA CR ___ Clark's Nutcracker FL SA UR ___ Gray Jay FL SA CR ___ Black-billed Magpie AG CR ___ American Crow AH CR ___ Common Raven AH CR
CHICKADEES AND TITMICE HABITAT STATUS ___ Black-capped Chickadee AH CR ___ Mountain Chickadee AH CR ___ Boreal Chickadee FL SA RR ___ Chestnut-backed Chickadee FL UR
NUTHATCHES HABITAT STATUS ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch AH CR ___ Pygmy Nuthatch AH UR ___ White-breasted Nuthatch FL RR
CREEPERS HABITAT STATUS ___ Brown Creeper FL SA CR
WAXWINGS HABITAT STATUS ___ Bohemian Waxwing AH UW ___ Cedar Waxwing AH CR
WRENS HABITAT STATUS ___ Rock Wren SA TR UR RW ___ House Wren AH CSB ___ Winter Wren FL SA CR ___ Marsh Wren WL CR RW ___ Canyon Wren TR RSB
DIPPERS HABITAT STATUS ___ American Dipper WL BS CR
STARLINGS HABITAT STATUS ___ European Starling AG UB CR
KINGLETS, BLUEBIRDS AND THRUSHES HABITAT STATUS ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet FL SA CR ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet UB FL CSB ___ Western Bluebird TR AG USB ___ Mountain Bluebird AG SA CSB ___ Townsend's Solitaire FL SA CR ___ Veery AG FL USB ___ Swainson's Thrush FL CSB ___ Hermit Thrush FL SA CSB ___ American Robin AH CR ___ Varied Thrush FL CR
MIMIC THRUSHES HABITAT STATUS ___ Gray Catbird AG WL USB
PIPETS HABITAT STATUS ___ American Pipet AG CM
SHRIKES HABITAT STATUS ___ Loggerhead Shrike TR XRSB ___ Northern Shrike FL AG CW
VIREOS HABITAT STATUS ___ Solitary Vireo FL CSB ___ Red-eyed Vireo FL CSB ___ Warbling Vireo AG WL CSB
WARBLERS HABITAT STATUS ___ Orange-crowned Warbler AG BS FL USB ___ Nashville Warbler AG FL USB ___ Yellow Warbler AG UB FL CSB ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler AH CSB ___ Townsend's Warbler FL SA CSB ___ American Redstart WL BS USB ___ Northern Waterthrush WL BS USB ___ MacGillivray's Warbler FL SA CSB ___ Common Yellowthroat WL CSB ___ Wilson's Warbler FL USB ___ Hermit Warbler WL FL USB
TANAGERS HABITAT STATUS ___ Western Tanager FL CSB
GROSBEAKS AND BUNTINGS HABITAT STATUS ___ Black-headed Grosbeak FL CSB ___ Lazuli Bunting AG UB FL CSB
SPARROWS HABITAT STATUS ___ Spotted Towhee AH CR ___ American Tree Sparrow AG RW ___ Chipping Sparrow AG FL CSB ___ Brewer's Sparrow TR RSB ___ Vesper Sparrow AG CSB ___ Lark Sparrow AG RSB ___ Savannah Sparrow AG CSB ___ Grasshopper Sparrow AG RSB ___ Le Conte's Sparrow AG (REC) ___ Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow AG FL (REC) ___ Fox Sparrow AH RSB RW ___ Song Sparrow AG UB WL CR UW ___ Lincoln's Sparrow FL BS UR CM ___ Swamp Sparrow WL XRW ___ White-crowned Sparrow AH CM UW ___ Golden-Crowned Sparrow AH RM ___ Harris' Sparrow AH RM ___ Dark-eyed Junco AF FL SA CR ___ Snow Bunting AG UW
BLACKBIRDS AND ORIOLES HABITAT STATUS ___ Bobolink AG USB ___ Red-winged Blackbird AG WL CR UW ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird AG WL CSB ___ Rusty Blackbird AH XRW XRM ___ Brewer's Blackbird AH CSB ___ Brown-headed Cowbird AH USB ___ Bullock's Oriole AG WL USB ___ Western Meadowlark AG CSB
FINCHES HABITAT STATUS ___ Gray-crowned Rosy Finch AG SA TR RW ___ Pine Grosbeak FL SA UR ___ Purple Finch FL RW ___ Cassin's Finch FL SA CR ___ House Finch UB AG CR ___ Red Crossbill FL SA UR CW ___ White-winged Crossbill FL SA RW RM ___ Common Redpoll AG FL UW ___ Pine Siskin AH CR ___ American Goldfinch AG FL CR ___ Evening Grosbeak UB AG FL UR
WEAVER FINCHES HABITAT STATUS ___ House Sparrow UB AG CR
Refuge Manager OR Forest Biologist Little Pend Oreille NWR Colville National Forest Colville, WA 99114 765 South Main Street (509) 684-8384 Colville, WA 99114 (509) 684-7000This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1995. Bird list for Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated.This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1995. Bird list for Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. http://www.npwrc.usgs.govlitlpend.htm (Version 30DEC2002).