Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Plush , Oregon
Welcome to Hart Mountain Refuge
Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in south-central Oregon was established in 1936 for the preservation, management and study of pronghorn antelope and other wildlife species. Todays goals include the original intent but are currently much broader in scope. The refuge is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior, and includes about 240,000 acres.
A Varied Landscape Supporting Over 330 Species of Wildlife
Hart Mountain is a massive volcanic ridge, rising to an altitude of 8,065 feet in elevation. The west side is very precipitous, ascending from the floor of the Warner Valley (4,500 feet) in a series of rugged cliffs and steep canyons. The east side features more gentle rolling hills, sloping toward the Catlow Valley to the east. The mountain features several small springs and seeps, along with a few streams, providing abundant water for wildlife.
Habitat types include big and low sagebrush areas, mountain mahogany and bitterbrush areas in the mountains above 6,000 feet. Other important types include alkaline lakes, marshes, grassy spring-fed meadows, juniper covered uplands, and aspen and pine stands in the more secluded canyon areas. Each of these areas supports its own particular wildlife species. Over 330 species have been recorded to use the refuge area.
Enjoying the Refuges' Wildlife
The study of wild animals in their natural habitats has become an increasingly popular pastime for many people. Viewing of wildlife can be greatly enhanced by a pair of binoculars or spotting scope, due to the large expanse of the Hart Mountain area. This equipment enables visitors to observe all wildlife from a distance without disturbing the animals.
Wildlife species in this brochure have been grouped into four categories: Birds, Mammals, Amphibians and Reptiles, and Fish.
For Your Safety
Because of the isolation and vastness of the refuge inquiries should be made at Refuge Headquarters about current road conditions before traveling to the more remote portions of the refuge especially during the winter and spring months.
Bird populations vary greatly in numbers and species according to seasons. Heavy migrations of waterfowl and waterbirds occur in the Warner Valley, partially included in the refuge, during the spring and fall. Many species remain to breed on the valley's lakes and meadows. Throughout the warmer months a wide variety of smaller birds and birds of prey are present, attracted to the numerous rugged cliffs adjoining isolated spring-fed riparian areas and the vast sagebrush and grassland portions of the refuge. The best opportunity to observe the greatest diversity of bird life on Hart Mountain is from May to October.
The following list contains 264 species that have been recorded on Hart Mountain and in the adjacent Warner Valley. It is not considered final as observations by many people continue to add to the list and the accuracy of its notations. We encourage and appreciate these observations and ask that they be reported to the Lakeview or Hart Mountain offices.
A few abbreviations have been used to assist the observer in determining status and seasonal abundance. Names are in accordance with the Sixth (1983) American Ornithologist's Union Checklist of North American Birds.
Pr- permanent resident - Species is present the entire year, usually nests
in the area.
Sr - summer resident - Migratory species which usually nests in the area.
Wr - winter resident - Migratory species which winters in the area.
M - migrant - Usually present spring and fall only, but occurrences may extend into other seasons.
tv - transient visitor - Irregular species or vagrants occurring sporadically and usually in small numbers.
Sp - Spring, March through May
S - Summer, June through August
F - Fall, September through November
W - Winter, December through February
A - abundant - Common, usually numerous, certain to be seen in proper habitat.
C - common - Occuring in smaller numbers, should be seen in suitable habitat sites.
U - uncommon - Present, but in few numbers, not certain to be seen.
O - ocassional - Seen infrequently during a season.
R - rare - Seen at intervals of two to five years.
* - Birds known to nest in area
^ - Birds thought to nest in area
+ - Indicated birds more commonly seen in Warner Valley
# - Endangered species
LOONS Status Sp S F W ___ Common Loon Tv O O
GREBES Status Sp S F W ___ +Pied-billed Grebe* S R C C C ___ +Horned Grebe M O O ___ +Eared Grebe* Sr C C C ___ +Western Grebe* Sr C C C ___ +Clark's Grebe* Sr C C C
PELICANS AND CORMORANTS Status Sp S F W ___ +American White Pelican* Sr C C C ___ +Double-crested Cormorant* Sr C C C
BITTERNS, HERONS, AND EGRETS Status Sp S F W ___ +American Bittern* Sr U U U ___ +Least Bittern^ Sr R R R ___ +Great Blue Heron* Pr C C C U ___ +Great Egret* Sr C C C ___ +Snowy Egret* Sr C C C ___ +Cattle Egret Tv R R ___ +Green-backed Heron^ Sr R R R ___ +Black-crowned Night Heron* Sr C C C
IBIS AND SPOONBILL Status Sp S F W ___ +White-faced Ibis^ Sr O O O
WATERFOWL Status Sp S F W ___ +Tundra Swan Wr A A C ___ +Lesser White-fronted Goose M U U ___ +Snow Goose M U U ___ +Ross' Goose M O O ___ +Canada Goose* Pr C C A C ___ Wood Duck Tv R ___ +Green-winged Teal* Pr C C C O ___ +Mallard* Pr C C A C ___ +Northern Pintail* Pr A C A C ___ +Blue-winged Teal* Sr O O O ___ +Cinnamon Teal* Sr C C C R ___ +Northern Shoveler* Pr C C C O ___ +Gadwall* Pr C C A U ___ +Eurasian Wigeon M O O ___ +American Wigeon* Pr C O A U ___ +Canvasback* Pr C U C O ___ +Redhead* Pr C C A C ___ +Ring-necked Duck* Wr U O U O ___ +Lesser Scaup^ Pr C U C O ___ +Common Goldeneye Wr U U U ___ +Barrow's Goldeneye Wr R R R ___ +Bufflehead Wr C R C C ___ +Hooded Merganser M R R ___ +Common Merganser Wr U U U ___ +Ruddy Duck* Pr C C C O
VULTURES Status Sp S F W ___ Turkey Vulture^ Sr C C C
OSPREY, KITES, EAGLES, AND HAWKS Status Sp S F W ___ +Osprey M O O ___ #Bald Eagle Wr U O U ___ Northern Harrier* Pr C C C U ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk^ Sr U O U O ___ Cooper's Hawk* Sr U O U O ___ Northern Goshawk* Sr O O O ___ +Swainson's Hawk* Sr O O O ___ Red-tailed Hawk* Pr C C C U ___ Ferruginous Hawk^ Pr O O O R ___ Rough-legged Hawk Wr U U C ___ Golden Eagle* Pr C C C C
FALCONS Status Sp S F W ___ American Kestrel* Pr A A A U ___ Merlin Wr O O O ___ #Peregrine Falcon M O O ___ Prairie Falcon* Pr C C C O
GALLINACEOUS BIRDS Status Sp S F W ___ Chukar* Pr C C C C ___ +Ring-necked Pheasant* Pr O O O O ___ Sage Grouse* Pr C C C C ___ +California Quail* Pr C C C C
Rails Status Sp S F W ___ +Virgina Rail* Sr U U U ___ +Sora* Sr U U U ___ +American Coot* Sr A C A O
CRANES Status Sp S F W ___ +Sandhill Crane* Sr C C C
PLOVERS Status Sp S F W ___ +Black-bellied Plover M O O ___ +Snowy Plover^ Sr R R R ___ Semipalmated Plover M U U ___ Killdeer* Sr C C C O
STILTS AND AVOCETS Status Sp S F W ___ +Black-necked Stilt* Sr U U U ___ American Avocet* Sr C C C
SHOREBIRDS Status Sp S F W ___ +Greater Yellowlegs M U U ___ +Willet* Sr C C C ___ Spotted Sandpiper* Sr U U U ___ +Long-billed Curlew* Sr U U U ___ +Marbled Godwit M O O ___ +Western Sandpiper M O C ___ +Least Sandpiper M U C ___ +Baird's Sandpiper M R O ___ +Pectoral Sandpiper M R O ___ *Dunlin M O U ___ +Long-billed Dowitcher M C C
SNIPE Status Sp S F W ___ Common Snipe* Pr C C C U
PHALAROPES Status Sp S F W ___ Wilson's Phalarope* Sr C C A ___ +Red-necked Phalarope M U U
GULLS AND TERNS Status Sp S F W ___ +Franklin's Gull^ Sr O R O ___ +Bonaparte's Gull M U R C ___ +Ring-billed Gull* Sr A A A O ___ +California Gull M O R O ___ +Caspian Tern* Sr U U U ___ +Forster's Tern* Sr C C C ___ +Black Tern* Sr C C C
DOVES Status Sp S F W ___ Band-tailed Pigeon Tv O O ___ Mourning Dove* Sr C C A O
OWLS Status Sp S F W ___ +Common Barn-Owl* Sr O O O ___ Flammulated Owl^ Sr C U C ___ Western Screech-Owl* Pr O O O O ___ Great Horned Owl* Pr C C C C ___ Northern Pygmy-Owl Wr R R R ___ Burrowing Owl* Sr O O O ___ Long-eared Owl* Pr C C C O ___ Short-eared Owl* Pr C C C O ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl^ Pr U U U U
GOATSUCKERS Status Sp S F W ___ Common Nighthawk^ Sr O C C ___ Common Poorwill* Sr O C C
SWIFTS Status Sp S F W ___ Vaux's Swift M O ___ White-throated Swift* Sr U U U
HUMMINGBIRDS Status Sp S F W ___ Black-chinned Hummingbird^ Sr O O O ___ Calliope Hummingbird* Sr U C U ___ Broad-tailed Hummingbird^ Sr O O O ___ Rufous Hummingbird^ Sr U C C
KINGFISHERS Status Sp S F W ___ +Belted Kingfisher M O O R
WOODPECKERS Status Sp S F W ___ Lewis' Woodpecker Tv O O ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker* Sr C C C ___ Red-naped Sapsucker* Sr U U U ___ Red-breasted Sapsucker^ Sr U U U ___ Williamson's Sapsucker Tv O O O ___ Downy Woodpecker* Pr U U U O ___ Hairy Woodpecker* Pr U U U U ___ Northern Flicker* Pr A A U
FLYCATCHERS Status Sp S F W ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher* Sr U O U ___ Western Wood-Pewee* Sr U C C ___ +Willow Flycatcher^ Sr U U U ___ Least Flycatcher Tv R R ___ Hammond's Flycatcher M R O ___ Dusky Flycatcher* Sr C A A ___ Gray Flycatcher* Sr C C C ___ Western Flycatcher M C C ___ Say's Phoebe* Sr U U U ___ Ash-throated Flycatcher^ Sr O O O ___ Western Kingbird* Sr U U U ___ Eastern Kingbird^ Tv O O
LARKS Status Sp S F W ___ Horned Lark* Pr A A A C
SWALLOWS Status Sp S F W ___ Tree Swallow* Sr C C C ___ Violet-green Swallow* Sr C C C ___ +Northern Rough-winged Swallow* Sr U U U ___ +Bank Swallow* Sr U U U ___ Cliff Swallow* Sr A A A ___ Barn Swallow* Sr A A A
JAYS, MAGPIES, AND CROWS Status Sp S F W ___ Gray Jay Tv O O ___ Steller's Jay^ Pr O O U O ___ Scrub Jay* Pr U U U O ___ Pinyon Jay Tv O O ___ Clark's Nutcracker Tv O O ___ Black-billed Magpie* Pr C C C C ___ Amercian Crow* Pr U U U O ___ Common Raven* Pr C C C C
CHICKADEES AND TITMICE Status Sp S F W ___ Black-capped Chickadee Wr O O ___ Mountain Chickadee* Pr C C C C ___ Plain Titmouse* Pr O O O O
BUSHTITS Status Sp S F W ___ Bushtits* Pr U U U U
NUTHATCHES Status Sp S F W ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch* Pr C R C C ___ White-breasted Nuthatch M O O ___ Pygmy Nuthatch* Pr C C C C
CREEPERS Status Sp S F W ___ Brown Creeper M O O O
WRENS Status Sp S F W ___ Rock Wren* Pr C C C O ___ Canyon Wren* Pr O C C O ___ Bewick's Wren^ Pr O O O O ___ House Wren* Sr A A A ___ Winter Wren Wr O R O O ___ Marsh Wren* Sr U C C R
DIPPERS Status Sp S F W ___ American Dipper* Pr U U U O
KINGLETS, BLUEBIRDS, Status Sp S F W AND THRUSHES ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet Wr U U O ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet* Pr A C A U ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* Sr U U O ___ Western Bluebird^ Sr U R U ___ Mountain Bluebird* Sr C C C O ___ Townsend's Solitaire^ Pr O O C C ___ Veery Tv R R ___ Swainson's Thrush* Sr C C C ___ Hermit Thrush^ M C R C ___ American Robin* Sr A A A O ___ Varied Thrush M U U
MOCKINGBIRDS AND TRASHERS Status Sp S F W ___ Sage Thrasher* Sr A A A
WAGTAILS AND PIPITS Status Sp S F W ___ Water Pipit^ M U R U
WAXWINGS Status Sp S F W ___ Bohemian Waxwing Tv O ___ Cedar Waxwing M U U O
SHRIKES Status Sp S F W ___ Northern Shrike Wr O U ___ Loggerhead Shrike* Pr C C C U
STARLINGS AND MYNAS Status Sp S F W ___ European Starling* Pr C C C U
VIREOS Status Sp S F W ___ Solitary Vireo* Sr U U U ___ Warbling Vireo* Sr U C C ___ Red-eyed Vireo Tv O O O
WARBLERS Status Sp S F W ___ Orange-crowned Warbler* Sr U U U ___ Nashville Warbler* Sr O O O ___ Yellow Warbler* Sr A A A ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler Tv R R ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler* Sr A O A ___ Black-throated Gray* Sr U U O ___ Townsend's Warbler M U U ___ Hermit Warbler M O O ___ Black-and-White Warbler M R R ___ Ovenbird Tv R R ___ Northern Waterthrush Tv R R ___ MacGillivray's Warbler* Sr C C C ___ Common Yellowthroat* Sr U U U ___ Wilson's Warbler M C R C ___ Yellow-breasted Chat^ Sr O O O
TANAGERS Status Sp S F W ___ Western Tanager* Sr C C C
GROSBEAKS AND BUNTINGS Status Sp S F W ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeaks Tv R R R ___ Black-headed Grosbeaks* Sr C C C ___ Lazuli Bunting* Sr U C C
TOWHEES AND SPARROWS Status Sp S F W ___ Green-tailed Towhee* Sr C C C ___ Rufous-sided Towhee* Sr C U C O ___ American Tree Sparrow Wr O O ___ Chipping Sparrow* Sr C U C ___ Brewer's Sparrow* Sr A A U ___ Vesper Sparrow* Sr A A A ___ Lark Sparrow* Sr C C C ___ Black-throated Sparrow* Sr U U ___ Sage Sparrow* Sr C C C R ___ +Savannah Sparrow* Sr C C C ___ Fox Sparrow* Sr C C C ___ Song Sparrow* Sr C C C ___ Lincoln's Sparrow M U U ___ Golden-crowned Sparrow M O U ___ White-crowned Sparrow* Sr A C A O ___ Dark-eyed Junco* Pr C U A U ___ Snow Bunting Tv O O
BLACKBIRDS, MEADOWLARKS, Status Sp S F W AND ORIOLES ___ Red-winged Blackbird* Sr C C C O ___ Western Meadowlark* Pr C C C O ___ +Yellow-headed Blackbird* Sr C C C ___ Brewer's Blackbird* Sr A A A O ___ Brown-headed Cowbird* Sr C C C ___ Northern Oriole* Sr U C C
FINCHES Status Sp S F W ___ Rosy Finch Wr C C C ___ Pine Grosbeak Tv O O ___ Purple Finch M O O ___ Cassin's Finch* Sr A A A O ___ House Finch* Sr U U U ___ Red Crossbill^ Tv O O O O ___ Common Redpoll Tv O ___ Pine Siskin* Sr U U U ___ Lesser Goldfinch* Sr U U U ___ American Goldfinch^ Sr O U U ___ Evening Grosbeak Tv U U U
OLD WORLD SPARROWS Status Sp S F W ___ House Sparrow* Pr C C C U
Birds listed here have been recorded only once or twice on the refuge and in very few numbers.
White-winged Scoter Bay-breasted Warbler Gyrfalcon American Redstart Parasitic Jaeger Tricolored Blackbird Yellow-billed Cuckoo Common Grackle Snowy Owl Scarlet Tanager Pileated Woodpecker Summer Tanager White-headed Woodpecker Lapland Longspur Gray Catbird Upland Sandpiper Brown Thrasher Mountain Quail Prothonotary Warbler Northern Hawk-Owl Tennessee Warbler Grasshopper Sparrow Virginia's Warbler Harris' Sparrow Black-throated Blue Warbler White-throated Sparrow
Date___________________________________ No. Species____________________________ Time Afield____________________________________________________________________ Observers______________________________________________________________________ Weather________________________________________________________________________ Remarks________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________
For more information contact:
Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge
PO Box 21
Plush, OR 97637
Phone (541) 947-3315
This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Wildlife of Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated.This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1994. Wildlife of Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Unpaginated. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. http://www.npwrc.usgs.govhartmtn.htm (Version 22MAY98).