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Farallon National Wildlife Refuge and Near Shore Waters

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Newark, California


FARALLON NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE

President Theodore Roosevelt established Farallon National Wildlife Refuge in 1909. The Refuge originally consisted of North, Middle and part of South Farallon Islands, about 30 to 40 miles west of San Francisco. In 1969 the Refuge expanded to include Southeast Farallon Island, the site of an automated navigation light house administered by the U.S. Coast Guard. Today, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protects 211 acres as essential habitat for marine wildlife and endangered species. All but Southeast Farallon Island have also been designated a Wildemess Area.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service obiectives are to protect and manage the seabird and marine mammal populations of the Farallon National Wildlife Refuge and allow them to recover from over a century of abuse. Seal hunting, egg harvesting, oil spills, and gill netting have degraded the habitat and imperiled the islands' wildlife. Some species, including the northern elephant seal, are well on the way to recovery. Others, such as the common murre, will need more time.

In order to protect these sensitive populations from disturbance, access to the Refuge is strictly limited. On occasion, wildlife biologists are granted access to conduct management-related research. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service only considers those uses that are compatible with the purposes of the Refuge, and which will further the protection and management of wildlife resources. Scientists from the Point Reyes Bird Observatory, working in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, maintain a constant presence on the Refuge, conduct research, monitor the wildlife, and report trespass violations.

Special boating restrictions around all of the Farallon Islands include year-round speed (5 nautical mph) and noise restrictions within 1000 feet of all of the islands. Between March 15 and August 15, a seasonal period encompassing the breeding season, vessel traffic is prohibited within 300 feet (one football field length) of most of the islands. Contact the Refuge for more details.

Farallon National Wildlife Refuge is a unit of the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex, with headquarters in Fremont, California. It is located within the boundary of Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary.

WILDLIFE OF THE FARALLON NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE AND NEAR-SHORE WATERS

Farallon National Wildlife Refuge supports the largest and most diverse seabird rookery on the Pacific coast south of Alaska. Over 200,000 seabirds frequent this chain of rocky islands,and 12 species breed there. A vast number of other bird species visit the islands, often many miles outside of their normal ranges. A host of marine mammals, including the threatened Steller sea lion, either haul out on the islands or cruise by. One hundred two species of fishes and several species of marine turtles, including the endangered green and leatherback turtles, swim near the islands.

This wildlife list, which includes 501 species of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, was compiled using data assembled over a period of many years of research. Scientists from the Point Reyes Bird Observatory, National Marine Fisheries Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service supplied species names and relative abundances.

HOW TO USE THIS SPECIES LIST

This guide lists seasonal frequencies for all species of wildlife, with the exception of the fishes (for which seasonal data are not available - annual abundances only are indicated); species are listed in taxonomic order. Relative abundance, and status for each species are indicated as follows:

# - Endangered/Threatened
* - Currently breeds
^ - Has bred in past
+ - Last recorded prior to 1900
A - (Abundant)- Very numerous
C - (Common)- Often seen in suitable habitat
U - (Uncommon)- Present, but not often seen
S - (Stray)- Unpredictable, occuring beyond the species' identified range; has been seen 
    at least once on Southeast Farallon Island.
Spr. - Spring
Sum. - Summer
Fall. - Fall
Wnt. - Winter


LOONS AND GREBES Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Common Loon U S C U ___ Red-throated Loon U S U U ___ Pacific Loon C S A C ___ Western Grebe U S U U ___ Clark's Grebe U S U - ___ Red-necked Grebe U - U U ___ Horned Grebe U - U U ___ Eared Grebe C S A A ___ Pied-billed Grebe - S U -
SEABIRDS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ +Short-tailed Albatross - - - - ___ Black-footed Albatross U U S S ___ Laysan Albatross S - - S ___ Northern Fulmar C U C C ___ Murphy's Petrel U - S - ___ Flesh-footed Shearwater - - S - ___ Sooty Shearwater A A A U ___ Short-tailed Shearwater S - U S ___ Pink-footed Shearwater C C A S ___ Buller's Shearwater - U A - ___ Manx Shearwater - - S - ___ Black-vented Shearwater - - U - ___ Leach's Storm-petrel U U - - ___ Black Storm-petrel - - S - ___ Ashy Storm-petrel C C U - ___ Fork-tailed Storm-petrel U S S - ___ Red-tailed Tropicbird - S - - ___ Magnificant Frigatebird - S S S ___ Great Frigatebird S - - -
PELICANS AND BOOBIES Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ California Brown Pelican U C A C ___ Masked Booby - S - - ___ Brown Booby - S S - ___ Red-footed Booby - - S -
CORMORANTS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Double-crested Cormorant C C U S ___ *Brandt's Cormorant A A C C ___ *Pelagic Cormorant A A C C
WADING BIRDS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ American Bittern - - S - ___ Black-crowned Night-heron - - S S ___ Green-backed Heron S S S - ___ Cattle Egret - - U S ___ Snowy Egret S S U S ___ Great Egret - S U S ___ Great Blue Heron S S U S ___ +White-faced Ibis - - - - ___ Tundra Swan - - S - ___ Greater White-fronted Goose S - S - ___ Snow Goose - - S S ___ Ross' Goose - - S S ___ Emperor Goose S - - S ___ Canada Goose S - U S ___ Black Brant U - U S ___ Mallard S - U - ___ Gadwall - - S - ___ Green-winged Teal - - U S ___ American Wigeon - - U - ___ Northern Pintail S - C S ___ Northern Shoveler - S U - ___ Blue-winged Teal - - S - ___ Cinnamon Teal S - U - ___ Ruddy Duck - - S S ___ Canvasback - - S - ___ Ring-necked Duck - - S - ___ Greater Scaup - - U S ___ Lesser Scaup - - S - ___ Harlequin Duck S S S S ___ Black Scoter - - S S ___ White-winged Scoter U S C U ___ Surf Scoter C S A C ___ Oldsquaw S - S S ___ Barrow's Goldeneye - - - S ___ Common Goldeneye S - S S ___ Bufflehead S - S - ___ Red-breasted Merganser U - C C
RAILS AND COOTS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ #+Clapper Rail - - - - ___ Virginia Rail - - S - ___ Sora S S S - ___ #Black Rail - - - - ___ Common Moorhen S - - - ___ American Coot S - S -
SHOREBIRDS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ *American Black Oystercatcher C C C C ___ American Avocet - - S S ___ Black-necked Stilt - - - S ___ #Western Snowy Plover - - S - ___ Semipalmated Plover - - U - ___ Killdeer U S U U ___ Eurasian Dotterel - - S - ___ Black-bellied Plover U - C C ___ Lesser Golden Plover S - U S ___ Marbled Godwit S - U - ___ Whimbrel C U A C ___ Long-billed Curlew - S S - ___ Willet C S A C ___ Greater Yellowlegs S - U - ___ Lesser Yellowlegs S - U - ___ Spotted Sandpiper U - U S ___ Wandering Tattler C U A C ___ Wilson's Phalarope - - S - ___ Red-necked Phalarope A - A - ___ Red Phalarope A - A U ___ Ruff - - S - ___ Short-billed Dowitcher S - C - ___ Long-billed Dowitcher S - C S ___ Common Snipe S - U S ___ Ruddy Turnstone U - U U ___ Black Turnstone C U A A ___ Surfbird S - U U ___ Rock Sandpiper S - U U ___ Red Knot - - S - ___ Dunlin S - U S ___ Sanderling S - U S ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper - - S - ___ Western Sandpiper S - C S ___ Least Sandpiper S - C S ___ Baird's Sandpiper S - C - ___ Sharp-tailed Sandpiper - - S - ___ Pectoral Sandpiper S - U - ___ Upland Sandpiper - - S - ___ Buff-breasted Sandpiper - - S -
JAEGERS, SKUAS, GULLS, AND TERNS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ South Polar Skua - - S - ___ Pomarine Jaeger S - U S ___ Parasitic Jaeger - - U S ___ Long-tailed Jaeger - - S - ___ Heermann's Gull U U C U ___ Franklin's Gull - - S - ___ Laughing Gull S - S - ___ Bonaparte's Gull U - U S ___ Ring-billed Gull S S U S ___ Mew Gull U - U U ___ Herring Gull U S C C ___ California Gull U S A C ___ Glaucous Gull S - S S ___ Thayer's Gull S - U U ___ *Western Gull A A A A ___ Glaucous-winged Gull C S A A ___ Black-legged Kittiwake U - U U ___ Sabine's Gull S S U - ___ Common Tern - - S - ___ Arctic Tern - - U - ___ Forster's Tern - - S - ___ Elegant Tern - - U - ___ Caspian Tern S S S -
MURRES, GUILLEMOTS, AND PUFFINS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ *Common Murre A A U A ___ *Pigeon Guillemot A A C S ___ Xantus' Murrelet S S S S ___ Craveri's Murrelet - - S - ___ Ancient Murrelet U S U U ___ *Cassin's Auklet A A A A ___ *Rhinoceros Auklet C C C U ___ Horned Puffin - S S S ___ *Tufted Puffin C C S -
VULTURES, EAGLES, HAWKS, AND FALCONS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Turkey Vulture S - - - ___ Golden Eagle - - S - ___ #Bald Eagle - - S S ___ Black-shouldered Kite - - S - ___ Northern Harrier S S U - ___ Sharp-shinned Hawk - - U - ___ Cooper's Hawk - - U - ___ Red-tailed Hawk S - S S ___ Rough-legged Hawk - - U S ___ Osprey S S S - ___ American Kestrel - S C U ___ Merlin - - U - ___ Prairie Falcon - - S - ___ #^Peregrine Falcon U S C C
PIGEONS AND DOVES Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Band-tailed Pigeon U S U S ___ Rock Dove U S U S ___ Mourning Dove U S C S ___ White-winged Dove - - S -
CUCKOOS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Black-billed Cuckoo - - S - ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo S S S -
OWLS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Common Barn Owl S - S - ___ Short-eared Owl S - U S ___ Long-eared Owl S S U - ___ Great Horned Owl - - S - ___ Northern Saw-whet Owl - - S S ___ ^Burrowing Owl U S C U
NIGHTHAWKS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Common Poorwill - - S - ___ Common Nighthawk S - S - ___ Lesser Nighthawk S S S -
SWIFTS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Chimney Swift S S S - ___ Black Swift S - S - ___ Vaux's Swift S - U - ___ White-throated Swift S - S -
HUMMINGBIRDS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird - - S - ___ Black-chinned Hummingbird - - S - ___ Costa's Hummingbird S S S - ___ Anna's Hummingbird U S C S ___ Calliope Hummingbird S - S - ___ Rufous Hummingbird C - C - ___ Allen's Hummingbird U S - -
KINGFISHERS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Belted Kingfisher U S U U
WOODPECKERS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Northern Flicker U - C U ___ Acorn Woodpecker - - S S ___ Lewis' Woodpecker S - S - ___ Red-breasted Sapsucker S - S S ___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker - - S - ___ Red-naped Sapsucker S - S -
FLYCATCHERS, LARKS AND SWALLOWS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Eastern Kingbird S S S - ___ Western Kingbird U S U - ___ Cassin's Kingbird - - S - ___ Tropical Kingbird - - S - ___ Scissor-tailed Flycatcher S - S - ___ Great Crested Flycatcher - - S - ___ Brown Crested Flycatcher - - S - ___ Ash-throated Flycatcher U S U - ___ Olive-sided Flycatcher U S U - ___ Eastern Wood-Pewee S - - - ___ Western Wood-Pewee C U C - ___ Eastern Phoebe S - S - ___ Black Phoebe S - C C ___ Say's Phoebe S S U S ___ Gray Flycatcher U - S - ___ Dusky Flycatcher U S S - ___ Hammond's Flycatcher U S U - ___ Least Flycatcher S - U - ___ Willow Flycatcher U S C - ___ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher - - S - ___ Western Flycatcher C S A - ___ Horned Lark S - U - ___ Tree Swallow U S U - ___ Violet-green Swallow U S C - ___ Purple Martin S S S - ___ Bank Swallow S S S - ___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow U S U - ___ Cliff Swallow U S U - ___ Barn Swallow C U C -
NUTCRACKERS AND RAVENS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Clark's Nutcracker - - S - ___ ^Common Raven S - - -
CREEPERS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Brown Creeper S - U -
NUTHATCHES Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ White-breasted Nuthatch S - S - ___ Red-breasted Nuthatch U S C - ___ Pygmy Nuthatch - - S -
WRENS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ House Wren S S U S ___ Winter Wren S S U S ___ Bewick' Wren - - S - ___ Marsh Wren S - S - ___ *Rock Wren C U C C
KINGLETS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Dusky Warbler - - S - ___ Golden-crowned Kinglet U - C - ___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet C S A S ___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher S - S -
BLUEBIRDS AND THRUSHES Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Western Bluebird S - S - ___ Mountain Bluebird S - S - ___ Townsend's Solitaire S - S S ___ Veery S - S - ___ Swainson's Thrush U S C - ___ Gray-cheeked Thrush S - S - ___ Hermit Thrush C S A U ___ Varied Thrush U S C U ___ American Robin U S C C ___ Northern Wheatear S - S - ___ Red-flanked Bluetail - - - S
SHRIKES Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Loggerhead Shrike S - S - ___ Northern Shrike - - S - ___ Brown Shrike - - S -
MIMIC THRUSHES Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Gray Catbird S - S - ___ Northern Mockingbird U S U S ___ Sage Thrasher S - U S ___ Brown Thrasher S - S S ___ Bendire's Thrasher S S S -
PIPITS AND WAGTAILS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Water Pipit U S A S ___ Sprague's Pipit - - S - ___ Red-throated Pipit - - S - ___ White - - S -
WAXWINGS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Bohemian Waxwing - - S - ___ Cedar Waxwing U S C S
PHAINOPEPLA Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Phainopepla - - S -
STARLINGS AND MYNAS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ ^European Starling U S A A
VIREOS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ White-eyed Vireo S - - - ___ Bell's Vireo - - S - ___ Yellow-throated Vireo S - - - ___ Hutton's Vireo S S U - ___ Solitary Vireo U - U - ___ Red-eyed Vireo U - S - ___ Warbling Vireo U S C - ___ Philadelphia Vireo S - S -
WARBLERS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Prothonotary Warbler - - S - ___ Golden-winged Warbler S - S - ___ Blue-winged Warbler S - - - ___ Tennessee Warbler U S U S ___ Orange-crowned Warbler C S C S ___ Nashville Warbler U S U - ___ Virginia's Warbler S - S - ___ Lucy's Warbler - - S - ___ Northern Parula S S S - ___ Black-and-White Warbler U S U - ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler - - U - ___ Cerulean Warbler - - S - ___ Blackburnian Warbler S S U - ___ Chestnut-sided Warbler S S U - ___ Cape May Warbler S S S - ___ Magnolia Warbler U S U - ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler C S A C ___ Black-throated Gray Warbler U S C - ___ Townsend's Warbler C - C S ___ Hermit Warbler U - U - ___ Black-throated Green Warbler S S S - ___ #Golden-cheeked Warbler - - S - ___ Yellow-throated Warbler S S S - ___ Prairie Warbler - - S - ___ Bay-breasted Warbler S S S - ___ Blackpoll Warbler U S C S ___ Pine Warbler - - S - ___ Western Palm Warbler S - C S ___ Yellow Warbler C S C - ___ Mourning Warbler S S U - ___ MacGillivray's Warbler U S C - ___ Connecticut Warbler S S S - ___ Kentucky Warbler S S S - ___ Canada Warbler S S S - ___ Wilson's Warbler A S C - ___ Hooded Warbler S S S - ___ Red-faced Warbler - - S - ___ Worm-eating Warbler S - S - ___ Ovenbird U S U - ___ Northern Waterthrush S S U - ___ Louisiana Waterthrush S - - - ___ Common Yellowthroat C S C - ___ Yellow-breasted Chat S S U - ___ American Redstart U S U -
GROSBEAKS, SPARROWS AND BUNTINGS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak U S U - ___ Black-headed Grosbeak U S U - ___ Blue Grosbeak S S U - ___ Indigo Bunting U S U - ___ Lazuli Bunting U S C - ___ Painted Bunting - - S - ___ Green-tailed Towhee S S S - ___ Rufous-sided Towhee U - C - ___ Grasshopper Sparrow S S U - ___ Baird's Sparrow - - S - ___ Le Conte's Sparrow - - S - ___ Vesper Sparrow S S U - ___ Savannah Sparrow U S A S ___ Song Sparrow S S U S ___ Lark Sparrow S S U S ___ Black-throated Sparrow S - S - ___ Sage Sparrow S - S - ___ Cassin's Sparrow S S S - ___ American Tree Sparrow S S S S ___ Field Sparrow S - - - ___ Chipping Sparrow U S C - ___ Clay-colored Sparrow U S U - ___ Brewer's Sparrow S S U - ___ Black-chinned Sparrow S - S - ___ Dark-eyed Junco C S A U ___ Harris Sparrow S - S - ___ White-throated Sparrow S S U - ___ White-crowned Sparrow C S A U ___ Golden-crowned Sparrow C - A U ___ Fox Sparrow U - A U ___ Lincoln's Sparrow C - C - ___ Swamp Sparrow S S U - ___ Chestnut-collared Longspur S S U - ___ Lapland Longspur S S U - ___ Snow Bunting - - S - ___ Dickcissel S S S - ___ Lark Bunting S - U -
BLACKBIRDS AND ORIOLES Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Bobolink S S U - ___ Western Meadowlark U S A C ___ Yellow-headed Blackbird S S U - ___ Red-winged Blackbird U S C S ___ Tricolored Blackbird S S S S ___ Rusty Blackbird S - S - ___ Brewer's Blackbird C S C S ___ Brown-headed Cowbird C U A - ___ Scott's Oriole - - S - ___ Orchard Oriole S S U - ___ Northern Oriole U S C - ___ Hooded Oriole S - S -
TANAGERS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Scarlet Tanager S - S - ___ Western Tanager U S C - ___ Summer Tanager S S S - ___ Hepatic Tanager S - S -
WEAVERS Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ *House Sparrow U U S S
FINCHES Spr. Sum. Fall Wnt. ___ Pine Siskin U S C S ___ American Goldfinch S S U - ___ Lesser Goldfinch U S C - ___ Lawrence's Goldfinch S - S - ___ Red Crossbill - - S S ___ Purple Finch U - C S ___ Cassin's Finch S S S - ___ ^House Finch C U C S ___ Evening Grosbeak S - S -

For more information about Farallon NWR, contact:
                      Project Leader
                      S.F. Bay National Wildlife Refuge Complex
                      Fremont, California 94555
                      Telephone: 510/792-0222

This resource is based on the following source:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  No date.  Wildlife of Farallon National Wildlife 
     Refuge & Near-shore Waters.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.
This resource should be cited as:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  No date.  Wildlife of Farallon National Wildlife 
     Refuge & Near-shore Waters.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Unpaginated.  
     Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. 
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.govfarallon.htm 
     (Version 26MAY98).

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