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Bird Checklists of the United States

Culebra National Wildlife Refuge

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Culebra Island, Puerto Rico

The Culebra National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1909 as a wildlife preserve subject to naval and lighthouse uses. By 1976, primary jurisdiction for the outlying islands was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. With the addition of land on the main island of Culebra in the 1980's, the refuge currently totals approximately l,568 acres.

The refuge's diverse wildlife habitats include subtropical dry forest, mangrove forest, and numerous small islands. The refuge supports a variety of breeding seabirds including Laughing Gulls, Bridled Terns, Brown Noddies, Roseate Terns, White-tailed, and Red-billed Tropicbirds and three species of Boobies. More than 50,000 seabirds find their way to this tiny dot in the ocean every year to breed and nurture their young. The largest colony, numbering over 15,000 birds, is the Sooty Tern colony located on Flamenco Peninsula. The majority of the species nesting in the area are migratory and are present only from May to September. However, others breed throughout the year.

The Bird Checklist — The following list, as prepared by the FWS, is arranged in the order establisheed by the American Orinthological Union. Symbols in this checklist represent the following:

Seasonal Appearance
Sp Spring — March-May
S Summer — June-August
F Fall — September-November
W Winter — December-February

Seasonal Abundance
a Abundant (A common species which is very numerous)
c Common (Certain to be seen in a suitable habitat)
u Uncommon (Present but not certain to be seen)
o Occasional (Seen only a few times during the season)
r Rare (Seen at intervals of 2 to 5 yrs.)
x Accidental (Seen only once or twice)
z Abundance unknown

dot - Endemic
E - Endangered
* - Exotic
N - Nesting

GREBES Sp S F W STATUS ___ Pied-billed Grebe o - - o - (Zaramago)
SHEARWATERS AND PETRELS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Greater Shearwater x - - - - (Pampero mayor) ___ Audubon's Shearwater z o z z N (Pampero)
TROPICBIRDS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Red-billed Tropicbird o o o o N (Rabijunco piquicolorado o chirre) ___ White-tailed Tropicbird o o - r N (Rabijunco coliblanco)
BOOBIES AND GANNETS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Masked Booby u u u u N (Boba enmascarada) ___ Brown Booby a a a a N (Boba prieta) ___ Red-footed Booby u u u u N (Boba patirroja)
PELICANS AND THEIR ALLIES Sp S F W STATUS ___ Brown Pelican c c c c - (Pelícano pardo)
CORMORANTS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Double-crested Cormorant x x - - x (Cormorán crestado)
FRIGATEBIRDS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Magnificant Frigatebird c c c c - (Tijereta)
HERONS, EGRETS, AND ALLIES Sp S F W STATUS ___ Least Bittern o r o o - (Martinetito) ___ Great Blue Heron u u u u - (Garzón cenizo) ___ Snowy Egret o o o o - (Garza blanca) ___ Little Blue Heron u u u u N (Garza azul) ___ Tricolored Heron u u u u - (Garza pechiblanca) ___ Cattle Egret a a a a N (Garza ganadera) ___ Green-backed Heron c c c c N (Martinete) ___ Yellow-crowned Night Heron u u u u N (Yaboa común)
WATERFOWL Sp S F W STATUS ___ White-cheeked Pintail u u u c N (Pato quijada colorada) ___ Blue-winged Teal - - o o - (Pato zarcel) ___ Northern Shoveler o o - - - (Pato cuchareta) ___ Lesser Scaup - - x - - (Pato pechiblanco) ___ Ruddy Duck o - o o - (Pato chorizo) ___ Masked Duck - - r - - (Pato dominico)
VULTURES, HAWKS AND ALLIES Sp S F W STATUS ___ Osprey o o o o - (Aguila pescadora) ___ Red-tailed Duck c c c c N (Guaraguao)
FALCONS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Merlin u - - u - (Falcón migratorio) ___ American Kestrel c c c c - (Falcón común) ___ Peregrine Falcon o - - o - (Falcón peregrino)
JUNGLEFOWL AND QUAIL Sp S F W STATUS ___ Red Junglefowl c c c c N* (Gallina y gallo)
GUINEAFOWL Sp S F W STATUS ___ Helmeted Guineafowl c c c c - (Guinea tocaz)
RAILS, GALLINULES, COOTS AND CRANE Sp S F W STATUS ___ Clapper Rail u u u u N (Pollo de mangle) ___ Purple Gallinule u u u u - (Gallareta azul) ___ Common Moorhen u u u u N (Gallareta común) ___ Caribbean Coot u u u u N (Gallinazo caribeño)
OYSTERCATCHERS Sp S F W STATUS ___ American Oystercatcher u u u u N (Ostrero)
SHOREBIRDS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Black-bellied Plover c - c - - (Playero cabezón) ___ Snowy Plover z z z z E (Playero blanco) ___ Wilson's Plover c r - c - (Playero marítimo) ___ Semipalmated Plover o r - o - (Playero acollarado) ___ Piping Plover - - - x E (Playero mel÷dico) ___ Killdeer c c c c N (Playero sabanero) ___ Black-necked Stilt c c c c N (Viuda) ___ Greater Yellowlegs c u c c - (Playero guineilla mayor) ___ Lesser Yellowlegs u - - u - (Playero guineilla menor) ___ Solitary Sandpiper - - r - - (Playero solitario) ___ Willet r - r - - (Playero aliblanco) ___ Spotted Sandpiper c - - c - (Playero coleador) ___ Whimbrel - - x - - (Playero picocorvo) ___ Ruddy Turnstone o o o o - (Playero turco) ___ Semipalmated Sandpiper c u c c - (Playerito gracioso) ___ Western Sandpiper o - o o - (Playerito occidental ___ White-rumped Sandpiper o - c c - (Playero robadilla blanca) ___ Pectoral Sandpiper r - r - - (Playero manchado) ___ Stilt Sandpiper - - u u - (Playero zancudo) ___ Short-billed Dowitcher o - o o - (Chorlo picocorto) ___ Common Snipe o - - o - (Becasina) ___ Laughing Gall a a u r N (Gaviota gallega) ___ Royal Tern c c o o N (Gaviota real) ___ Arctic Tern o o - - - (Gaviota del ártico) ___ Sandwich Tern o o o u N (Gaviota piguiaguda) ___ Roseate Tern c c c - EN (Palmeta) ___ Bridled Tern c c - - N (Gaviota monja) ___ Sooty Tern c c - - N (Gaviota oscura) ___ Brown Noody c c - - N (Cervera)
PIGEONS, DOVES Sp S F W STATUS ___ White-crowned Pigeon o u o o N (Paloma cabeciblanca) ___ Scaly-naped Pigeon c c c c N (Paloma turca) ___ Zenaida Dove a a a a N (T÷rtola cardosantera) ___ White-winged Dove o o o o - (T÷rtola aliblanca) ___ Common Ground-dove a a a a N (Rolita)
PARROTS, PARAKEETS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Brown-throated Parakeet u u u u N (Periquito garganta morena) ___ Orange-fronted Parakeet - - x - - (Periquito garganta anaranjada)
CUCKOOS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo o o o o - (Pájaro bobo picomarillo) ___ Smoothed-billed ani c c c c N (Judio) ___ Mangrove Cuckoo o o o o - (Pájaro bobo menor)
OWLS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Short-eared Owl u u u u N (Múcaro real) ___ Puerto Rican Screeched Owl o o o o o (Mácaro de Puerto Rico)
GOATSUCKERS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Chuck-will's Widow r r r r - (Gaubairo mayor) ___ Antillean Nighthawk r r - - - (Querequequé antillano)
SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Antillean Mango c c c c - (Zumbador dorado) ___ Green Mango r r r r dot (Zumbador verde) ___ Green-throated Carib u u u u dot (Zumbador pechiazul) ___ Antillean Crested Hummingbird o o o o N (Zumbadorcito crestado)
KINGFISHERS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Belted Kingfisher o o o o - (Martín pescador)
FLYCATCHERS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Gray Kingbird a a a a N (Pitirre) ___ Puerto Rican Flycatcher r r r r dot (Juí de Puerto Rico) ___ Caribbean Elaenia a o o c - (Juí blanco)
MARTINS AND SWALLOWS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Tree Swallow c - - - - (Golondrina vientreblanco) ___ Caribbean Martin u u u u N (Golondrina de iglesias) ___ Cave Swallow x - - - - (Golondrina de cuevas) ___ Barn Swallow c c - z - (Golondrina de horquilla)
THRASHERS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Northern Mockingbird a a a a N (Ruiseñor) ___ Pearly-eyed Thrasher a a a a N (Zorzal pardo)
VIREOS Sp S F W STATUS ___ White-eyed Vireo - - x - - (Julián chiví ojiblanco) ___ Black-whiskered Vireo o - u u N (Julián chiví) ___ Red-eyed Vireo - - r - - (Julián chiví ojirrojo)
WARBLERS Sp S F W STATUS ___ Northern Parula r - r - - (Reinita pechidorada) ___ Yellow Warbler o o o o - (Canario de mangle) ___ Chesnut-sided Warbler o - - - - (Reinita costadicastaña) ___ Cape May Warbler - - - x - (Reinita tigre) ___ Black-throated Blue Warbler - - - x - (Reinita azul) ___ Yellow-rumped Warbler - - - o - (Reinita coronada) ___ Yellow-throated Warbler - - - x - (Reinita gargantiamarilla) ___ Prairie Warbler c c o o - (Reinita galana) ___ Palm Warbler - r r - - (Reinita palmera) ___ Black-and-white Warbler u - u u - (Reinita trepadora) ___ American Redstart u - u u - (Candelita) ___ Bananauit a a a a N (Reinita comeun) ___ Prothonotary warbler u - u u - (Reinita anaranjada) ___ Ovenbird u - u u - (Pizpita dorada) ___ Northern Waterthrush o - - o - (Pizpita de mangle) ___ Louisiana Waterthrush x - - - - (Pizpita de río) ___ Yellow-faced Grassquit o o o o - (Gorrión barba amarilla) ___ Black-faced grassquit c c c c N (Gorrión negro) ___ Shiny Cowbird u u u - - (Tordo lustroso) ___ Greater Antillean Grackle c c c c N (Mozambique, chango) ___ Troupial u u u u N (Turpial) ___ Hooded Warbler - - r - - (Reinita de capucha)

Ethics for Birdwatching

Take care not to disturb nesting birds, exposing eggs and young to extreme temperatures and predation. Disturb wintering wildlife as little as possible, particularly during critical feeding and resting periods. They need all of their energy reserves to withstand the stresses of harsh weather and migration.

Do not litter.  Many birds die when they become entangled in fishing lines, 6-pack rings and other trash, or when they mistake garbage for food, This checklist is based on observations by refuge personnel and visiting ornithologists. If you should find an unlisted species, please let the Fish and Wildlife personnel know at the Culebra Refuge Headquarters. They will appreciate your updating their records.

For additional information contact:
                 Culebra National Wildlife Refuge Manager 
                 P.O. Box 190 
                 Culebra, Puerto Rico 00775 
                 Tel./Fax: 787-742-0115

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