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Diet of Canvasbacks During Breeding

Literature Cited


Anderson, M. G., and J. P. Low. 1976. Use of sago pondweed on the Delta Marsh, 
     Manitoba. J. Wildl. Manage. 40:233-242.

Barzen, J. A., and J. R. Serie. 1990. Nutrient reserve dynamics of breeding 
     canvasbacks. Auk 107: 75-85.

Bartonek, J. C., and J. J. Hickey. 1969. Food habits of canvasback, redheads, 
     and lesser scaup in Manitoba. Condor 71:280-290.

Bellrose, F. C. 1980. Ducks, geese, and swans of North America, 3rd ed. 
     Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA.

Drobney, R. D., and L. H. Fredrickson. 1979. Food selection by wood ducks in 
     relation to breeding status. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:109-120.

Hohman, W. L. 1985. Feeding ecology of ring-necked ducks in northwestern 
     Minnesota. J. Wildl. Manage. 49:546-557.

Kiel, W. H., Jr., A. S. Hawkins, and N. G. Perret. 1972. Waterfowl habitat 
     trends in the aspen-parkland of Manitoba. Can. Wildl. Serv. Rep. Ser. 
     No. 18.

Krapu, G. L. 1974. Feeding ecology of pintail hens during reproduction. Auk 
     91:278-290.

Krapu, G. L., and K. J. Reinecke. In press. Foraging ecology and nutrition. 
     Chapter 2 in The ecology and management of breeding waterfowl (B. D. J. 
     Batt, ed.). University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Noyes, J. H. 1983. Diet and nutrition of breeding canvasback and redhead ducks
     at Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada. M. S. Thesis. Oregon State 
     University, Corvallis.

Noyes, J. H., and R. L. Jarvis. 1985. Diet and nutrition of female redhead 
     canvasback ducks in Nevada. J. Wildl. Manage. 49:203-211.

Stewart, R. E., and H. A. Kantrud. 1971. Classification of natural ponds and 
     lakes in the glaciated prairie region. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Resour. 
     Publ. No. 92.

Stoudt, J. H. 1982. Habitat use and productivity of canvasbacks in southwestern 
     Manitoba, 1961-72. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Spec. Sci. Rep. Wildl. No. 248.

Sugden, L. G. 1973. Metabolizable energy of wild duck foods. Can. Wildl. Serv.
     Prog. Note No. 35.

Swanson, G. A., and J. C. Bartonek. 1970. Bias associated with food analysis in 
     gizzards of blue-winged teal. J. Wildl. Manage. 34:739-746.

Swanson, G. A., G. L. Krapu, J. C. Bartonek, J. R. Serie, and D. H. Johnson. 
     1974. Advantages in mathematically weighting waterfowl food habits data.
     J. Wildl. Manage. 38:302-307.

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