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Using Candlers to Determine the Incubation
Stage of Passerine Eggs

Literature Cited

Bart, J. 1977. Impact of human visitations on avian nesting success. Living Bird 16:187-192.

Caldwell, P. J. and A. E. Snart. 1974. A photographic index for aging mallard embryos. J. 
     Wildl. Manage. 38:298-301.

Green, R. 1984. Nomograms for estimating the stage of incubation of wader eggs in the field.  
     Wader Study Group Bull. 42:36-39.

Hanson, H. C. and C. W. Kossack. 1963. The mourning dove in Illinois. Illinois Nat. 
     Hist. Surv. Tech. Bull. No. 2. 133 pp.

Harrison, H. H. 1979. A field guide to western birds' nests. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 279 

Koford, R. R., J. R. Sauer, D. H. Johnson, J. D. Nichols, and M. D. Samuel. 1992. A stochastic 
     population model of mid-continental mallards. Pages 170-181 in D. R. McCullough and R. H. 
     Barrett, eds. Wildlife 2001: Populations. Elsevier Applied Science, London, England. 1163 

Lokemoen, J. T., H. F. Duebbert, and D. E. Sharp. 1984. Nest spacing, habitat selection, and   
     behavior of waterfowl on Miller Lake Island, North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:309-321.

Weller, M. W. 1956. A simple field candler for waterfowl eggs. J. Wildl. Manage. 20:111-113.

Welty, J. C. 1964. The life of birds. Saunders Publishing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 754

Westerskov, K. 1950. Methods for determining the age of game bird eggs. J. Wildl. Manage.

Westmoreland, D., and L. B. Best. 1985. The effect of disturbance on mourning dove nesting 
     success. Auk 102:774-780.

Young, A. D. 1988. A portable candler for birds' eggs. J. Field Ornithol. 59:266-268.

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