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Ranges of North American Breeding Birds

Visualizing Long-term Population Changes In North American Breeding Birds

Data and maps presented courtesy of Jeff Price, Northern Prairie Science Center.

Legend: See graphical legend below and on each map.

These maps show changes in the distribution and abundance patterns of some North American birds for the last 20 years. For each species there are four maps, each representing the average distribution and abundance pattern over the five-year periods 1970-1974, 1975-1979, 1980-1984, and 1985-1989.

The maps are based on data collected by the USFWS/CWS Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). Only BBS routes that were run at least once during each of the five-year periods were used (about 1300 routes). The maps were created in the software package Surfer using a kriging technique to interpolate mean relative abundances for areas where no routes were run. On each map, a portion of northeast Canada was blanked out because there were not enough routes to allow for adequate interpolation.

All of the maps in this presentation use the same color scale (shown below). The minimum value mapped was 0.5 birds per route, which represents the edge of the species range.


This resource should be cited as:

Price, Jeff.  1995.  Ranges of North American breeding birds visualizing long-term population changes in North American breeding birds.  Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. (Version 16JUL1997).


American kestrel (Falco sparverius)
Black-shouldered kite (Elanus caeruleus)
Black vulture (Coragyps atratus)
Crested caracara (Caracara plancus)
Harris' hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus)
Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippiensis)
Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus)
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)
Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)
Red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus)
Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis)
Swainson's hawk (Buteo swainsoni)
Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura)
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American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)
American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus)
Black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus)
Common snipe (Gallinago gallinago)
Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)
Lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes)
Long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus)
Marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa)
Mountain plover (Charadrius montanus)
Spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia)
Upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda)
Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus)
Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor)
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California gull (Larus californicus)
Franklin's gull (Larus pipixcan)
Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens)
Great black-backed gull (Larus marinus)
Herring gull (Larus argentatus)
Laughing gull (Larus atricilla)
Ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis)
Western gull (Larus occidentalis)
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Black skimmer (Rhynchops niger)
Black tern (Chlidonias niger)
Caspian tern (Sterna caspia)
Common tern (Sterna hirundo)
Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri)
Gull-billed tern (Sterna nilotica)
Least tern (Sterna antillarum)
Royal tern (Sterna maxima)
Sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis)
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Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus)
Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba)
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California quail (Callipepla californica)
Chukar (Alectoris chukar)
Gambel's quail (Callipepla gambelii)
Gray partridge (Perdix perdix)
Mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus)
Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus)
Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)
Scaled quail (Callipepla squamata)
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Band-tailed pigeon (Columba fasciata)
Common ground dove (Columbina passerina)
Inca dove (Columbina inca)
Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura)
Rock dove (Columba livia)
Spotted Dove (Streptopelia chinensis)
White-crowned pigeon (Columba leucocephala)
White-winged dove (Zenaida asiatica)
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Black-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus)
Greater roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus)
Groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris)
Smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani)
Yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus)
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Burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia)
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Chuck-will's-widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis)
Common nighthawk (Chordeiles minor)
Common pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis)
Lesser nighthawk (Chordeiles acutipennis)
Whip-poor-will (Caprimulgus vociferus)
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Black swift (Cypseloides niger)
Chimney swift (Chaetura pelagica)
Vaux's swift (Chaetura vauxi)
White-throated swift (Aeronautes saxatalis)
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Allen's hummingbird (Selasphorus sasin)
Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna)
Black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri)
Broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus)
Calliope hummingbird (Stellula calliope)
Costa's hummingbird (Calypte costae)
Ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)
Rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus)
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Acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus)
Downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens)
Gila woodpecker (Melanerpes uropygialis)
Golden-fronted woodpecker (Melanerpes aurifrons)
Hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus)
Ladder-backed woodpecker (Picoides scalaris)
Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus)
Nuttall's woodpecker (Picoides nuttallii)
Pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus)
Red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus)
Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis)
Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)
White-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus)
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Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens)
Ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens)
Black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans)
Brown-crested flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus)
Cassin's kingbird (Tyrannus vociferans)
Couch's kingbird (Tyrannus couchii)
Dusky flycatcher (Empidonax oberholseri)
Eastern kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus)
Eastern phoebe (Sayornis phoebe)
Eastern wood-pewee (Contopus virens)
Gray flycatcher (Empidonax wrightii)
Gray kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis)
Great-crested flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus)
Great kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus)
Hammond's flycatcher (Empidonax hammondii)
Least flycatcher (Empidonax minimus)
Olive-sided flycatcher (Contopus borealis)
Say's phoebe (Sayornis saya)
Scissor-tailed flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus)
Vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus)
Western flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis)
Western kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis)
Western wood-pewee (Contopus sordidulus)
Willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii)
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Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica)
Cave swallow (Hirundo fulva)
Cliff swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota)
Northern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis)
Purple martin (Progne subis)
Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)
Violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina)
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American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
Black-billed magpie (Pica pica)
Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata)
Chihuahuan raven (Corvus cryptoleucus)
Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana)
Common raven (Corvus corax)
Fish crow (Corvus ossifragus)
Gray-breasted jay (Aphelocoma ultramarina)
Gray jay (Perisoreus canadensis)
Green jay (Cyanocorax yncas)
Northwestern crow (Corvus caurinus)
Pinyon jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus)
Scrub jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens)
Steller's jay (Cyanocitta stelleri)
Yellow-billed magpie (Pica nuttalli)
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Black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus)
Bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus)
Bridled titmouse (Parus wollweberi)
Brown creeper (Certhia americana)
Brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla)
Carolina chickadee (Parus carolinensis)
Chestnut-backed chickadee (Parus rufescens)
Mountain chickadee (Parus gambeli)
Plain titmouse (Parus inornatus)
Pygmy nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea)
Red-breasted nuthatch (Sitta canadensis)
Tufted titmouse (Parus bicolor)
Verdin (Auriparus flaviceps)
White-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis)
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Bewick's wren (Thryomanes bewickii)
Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillu)
Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus)
House wren (Troglodytes aedon)
Marsh wren (Cistothorus palustris)
Rock wren (Salpinctes obsoletus)
Sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis)
Winter wren (Troglodytes troglodytes)
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American robin (Turdus migratorius)
Black-tailed gnatcatcher (Polioptila melanura)
Blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea)
Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis)
Golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa)
Hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus)
Mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides)
Ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula)
Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus)
Townsend's solitaire (Myadestes townsendi)
Varied thrush (Ixoreus naevius)
Veery (Catharus fuscescens)
Western bluebird (Sialia mexicana)
Wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)
Wrentit (Chamaea fasciata)
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Bendire's thrasher (Toxostoma bendirei)
Brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)
California thrasher (Toxostoma redivivum)
Crissal thrasher (Toxostoma crissale)
Curve-billed thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre)
Gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis)
Le Conte's thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei)
Long-billed thrasher (Tosostoma longirostre)
Northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)
Sage thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus)
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Belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon)
Cedar waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)
European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
Horned lark (Eremophila alpestris)
Loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)
Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens)
Sprague's pipit (Anthus spragueii)
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Bell's vireo (Vireo bellii)
Black-whiskered vireo (Vireo altiloquus)
Hutton's vireo (Vireo huttoni)
Red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus)
Solitary vireo (Vireo solitarius)
Warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus)
White-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus)
Yellow-throated vireo (Vireo flavifrons)
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American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla)
Bay-breasted warbler (Dendroica castanea)
Black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia)
Black-throated blue warbler (Dendroica caerulescens)
Black-throated green warbler (Dendroica virens)
Black-throated gray warbler (Dendroica nigrescens)
Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca)
Blackpoll warbler (Dendroica striata)
Blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus)
Canada warbler (Wilsonia canadensis)
Cape May warbler (Dendroica tigrina)
Cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea)
Chestnut-sided warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica)
Common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)
Connecticut warbler (Oporornis agilis)
Golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera)
Hermit warbler (Dendroica occidentalis)
Hooded warbler (Wilsonia citrina)
Kentucky warbler (Oporornis formosus)
Louisiana waterthrush (Seiurus motacilla)
Lucy's warbler (Vermivora luciae)
MacGillivray's warbler (Oporornis tolmiei)
Magnolia warbler (Dendroica magnolia)
Mourning warbler (Oporornis philadelphia)
Nashville warbler (Vermivora ruficapilla)
Northern parula (Parula americana)
Northern waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis)
Orange-crowned warbler (Vermivora celata)
Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus)
Pine warbler (Dendroica pinus)
Prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor)
Prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea)
Swainson's warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii)
Tennessee warbler (Vermivora peregrina)
Townsend's warbler (Dendroica townsendi)
Wilson's warbler (Wilsonia pusilla)
Worm-eating warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus)
Yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens)
Yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata)
Yellow-throated warbler (Dendroica dominica)
Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia)
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Summer tanager (Piranga rubra)
Scarlet tanager (Piranga olivacea)
Western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana)
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Black-headed grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus)
Blue grosbeak (Guiraca caerulea)
Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)
Pyrrhuloxia (Cardinalis sinuatus)
Rose-breasted grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus)
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Dickcissel (Spiza americana)
Indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea)
Lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena)
Painted bunting (Passerina ciris)
Varied bunting (Passerina versicolor)
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Abert's towhee (Pipilo aberti)
Bachman's sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis)
Baird's sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii)
Black-chinned sparrow (Spizella atrogularis)
Black-throated sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata)
Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri)
Brown towhee (Pipilo fuscus)
Cassin's sparrow (Aimophila cassinii)
Chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus)
Chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina)
Clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida)
Field sparrow (Spizella pusilla)
Fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca)
Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)
Green-tailed towhee (Pipilo chlorurus)
Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii)
Lark bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys)
Lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus)
LeConte's sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii)
McCown's longspur (Calcarius mccownii)
Olive sparrow (Arremonops rufivirgatus)
Rufous-crowned sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps)
Rufous-sided towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)
Sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli)
Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis)
Seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus)
Swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana)
Dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis)
Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia)
White-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys)
White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)
Vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus)
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Boat-tailed grackle (Quiscalus major)
Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus)
Brewer's blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus)
Bronzed cowbird (Molothrus aeneus)
Brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater)
Common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)
Eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna)
Great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus)
Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)
Tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor)
Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
Yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus)
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Baltimore oriole (Icterus galbula)
Hooded oriole (Icterus cucullatus)
Orchard oriole (Icterus spurius)
Scott's oriole (Icterus parisorum)
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American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis)
Cassin's finch (Carpodacus cassinii)
Evening grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertinus)
House finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)
Lawrence's goldfinch (Carduelis lawrencei)
Lesser goldfinch (Carduelis psaltria)
Pine siskin (Carduelis pinus)
Purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus)
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Old World Sparrows
Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus)
House sparrow (Passer domesticus)
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