USGS - science for a changing world

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

  Home About NPWRC Our Science Staff Employment Contacts Common Questions About the Site

Declines of Greater and Lesser Scaup Populations: Issues, Hypotheses, and Research Directions

Literature Cited

ADRP.  1989.  Final Report.  Alberta Government/Industry Acid Deposition 
     Research Program. Calgary, AB, 25pp. 

Afton, A. D.  1983.  Male and female strategies for reproduction in lesser 
     scaup.  Ph.D. Diss., Univ. North Dakota, Grand Forks. 151pp.

Afton, A. D.  1984.  Influence of age and time on reproductive performance 
     of female lesser scaup.  Auk 101:255-265.

Afton, A. D.  1985.  Forced copulation as a reproductive strategy of male 
     lesser scaup:  a field test of some predictions.  Behaviour 92:146-167.

Afton, A. D.  1993.  Post-hatch brood amalgamation in lesser scaup: female 
     behavior and return rates, and duckling survival.  Prairie Nat. 25:227-235. 

Afton, A. D., and C. D. Ankney.  1991.  Nutrient-reserve dynamics of breeding 
     lesser scaup: a test of competing hypotheses.  Condor 93:89-97.

Afton, A. D., and M. G. Anderson.  Why have scaup populations declined? -- A 
     critical review of available data and some explanatory hypotheses.  J. 
     Wildlife Management (in review).

Afton, A. D., and R. H. Hier. 1991.  Diets of lesser scaup breeding in 
     Manitoba.  J. Field Ornithol. 62:325-334. 

Allen, G. T., D. F. Caithamer, and M. Otto.  1999.   A review of the status 
     of greater and lesser scaup in North America.  U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
     Service, Office of Migratory Bird Management, Washington, D.C.  Draft 9 
     Feb 1999. 45pp.

Anonymous. 1988.  Acid Rain: a national sensitivity assessment.  Inland Waters 
     and Lands Directorate, Environment Canada, Environ. Fact Sheet 88-1.  6pp.

Austin, J. E.  1983.  Postbreeding ecology of female lesser scaup.  M.S. 
     thesis, Univ. Missouri, Columbia.  124pp. 

Austin, J. E., C. M. Custer, and A. D. Afton.  1998.  Lesser scaup 
     (Aythya affinis).  In A. A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.  
     The Birds of North America, No. 338.  The American Ornithologists' 
     Union, Washington, D.C., and Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia,
     PA.  32pp.

Barclay, J. S., and J. Zingo.  1993.  Winter scaup populations in Connecticut 
     coastal waters.  Conn. Warbler 13:137-150.

Bellrose, F. C.  1980.  Ducks, geese, and swans of North America.  3rd ed.  
     Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. 540pp.

Bellrose, F. C., F. L. Paveglio, Jr., and D. W. Steffeck. 1979. Waterfowl 
     populations and the changing environment of the Illinois River Valley. 
     Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 32:1-54.  

Blus, L. J. 1996. DDT, DDD, and DDE in Birds.  Pg. 49 - 71 in W. N. 
     Beyer, G. H. Heinz, and A. W. Redmon-Norwood, eds. Environmental 
     Contaminants in Wildlife Interpreting Tissue Concentrations.  Lewis 
     Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.

Carlson, J. D., Jr., W. R. Clark, and E. E. Klaas.  1993.  A model of the 
     productivity of the northern pintail.  U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 
     7.  20pp.

Chamberlain, C. P., J. D. Blum, R. T. Holmes, X. Feng, T. W. Sherry, and G. R. 
     Graves.  1997.  The use of isotope tracers for identifying populations of 
     migratory birds.  Oecologia 109:132-141.     

Conrad, S. G., and G. A. Ivanova. 1997.  Wildfire in Russian boreal forests -- 
     potential impacts of fire regime characteristics on emission and global 
     carbon balance estimates.  Environ. Pollut. 98:305-313.

Crissey, W. F.  1975.  Determination of appropriate waterfowl hunting 
     regulations.  US. Dep. Interior, Bur. Sport Fish. Wildl. Admin. Rep.- 
     June 21, 1975.

Dawson, R. D., and R. G. Clark.  1996.  Effects of variation in egg size and 
     hatching date on survival of lesser scaup Aythya affinis ducklings.   
     Ibis 138:693-699.  

Eggeman, D. R., and F. A. Johnson.  1989. Variation in effort and methodology 
     for the midwinter waterfowl inventory in the Atlantic Flyway.  Wildl. Soc. 
     Bull. 17:227-233.

Environment Canada.  1995.  The state of Canada's climate:   monitoring 
     variability and change.  SOE Rep. No. 95-1.

Environment Canada.  1997.  Climate trends and variations bulletin for Canada.  
     January to August 1998.  Environment Canada Atmospheric Environment 
     Service, Climate Research Branch Home Page.

Flint, P. L., J. B. Grand, and R. F. Rockwell. 1998.  A model of northern 
     pintail productivity and population growth rate. J. Wildl. Manage. 

Flint, P. L., M. R. Petersen, and J. B. Grand. 1997.  Exposure of spectacled 
     eiders and other diving ducks to lead in western Alaska.  Can. J. Zool. 

Fournier, M. A., and J. E. Hines.  1996.  Nest sharing by a lesser scaup and a 
     greater scaup.  Wilson Bull. 108:380-381.  

Government of Canada.  1991.  Toxic Chemicals in the Great Lakes and Associated 
     Effects.  Vol.1.  Contaminant Levels and Trends.  Environment Canada, Dep. 
     Fisheries and Oceans, Health and Welfare Canada.

Grand, J. B. 1995. Nesting success of ducks on the Central Yukon Flats, Alaska. 
     Can. J. Zool. 73:260-265.  

Grieg, R. A., A. Adams, and D. R. Wenzloff. 1977. Trace metal content of 
     plankton and zooplankton collected from the New York Bight and Long Island 
     Sound.  Bull. Environ. Toxicol. 18:3-8.

Grieg, R. A., and G. Sennefelder.  1985.  Metal and PCB concentrations in 
     mussels from Long Island Sound. Bull. Environ. Toxicol. 35:331-334.

Haines, T. A.  1981.  Acidic precipitation and its consequences for aquatic 
     ecosystems: a review.  Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 110:669-707. 

Hammell, G. S.  1973.  The ecology of the lesser scaup (Aythya affinis 
     Eyton) in southwestern Manitoba.   M.S. Thesis, Univ. Guelph, Ont.  156pp.  

Hansen, P. W. 1987.  Acid Rain and Waterfowl: the case for concern in North 
     America.  Izaak Walton League of America.  Arlington, VA, 39pp.

Heinz, G. H.  1996.  Selenium in Birds. Pages 447 - 458 in W. N. Beyer, 
     G. H. Heinz, and A. W. Redmon-Norwood, eds. Environmental Contaminants in 
     Wildlife Interpreting Tissue Concentrations.  Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, 

Hines, J. E.  1977.  Nesting and brood ecology of lesser scaup at Waterhen 
     Marsh, Saskatchewan.  Can. Field-Nat. 91:248-255.  

Hobson, K. A., and R. G. Clark. 1992.  Assessing avian diets using stable 
     isotopes I: Turnover of 13C in tissues. Condor 94:181-188.

Hobson, K. A., and R. G. Clark. 1993. Turnover of 13C in cellular and plasma 
     fractions of blood: Implications for nondestructive sampling in avian 
     dietary studies. Auk 110:638-641.

Hobson, K. A., and L. I. Wassenaar. 1997. Linking breeding and wintering 
     grounds of neotropical migrant songbirds using stable hydrogen isotopic 
     analysis of feathers.  Oecologia 109:142-148.

Hothem, R. L., D. G. Lonzarich, J. E. Takekawa, and H. M. Ohlendorf.  1998.  
     Contaminants in wintering canvasbacks and scaups from San Francisco Bay, 
     California. Environ. Monitor. Assess. 50:67-84.  

Johnson, D. H., and J. W. Grier.  1988.  Determinants of breeding distributions 
     of ducks.  Wildl. Monogr. No. 100.  37pp.

Johnson, D. H., D. W. Sparling, and L. M. Cowardin.  1987.  A model of the 
     productivity of the mallard duck.  Ecol. Modeling 38:257-275.

Keith, J. O.  1996.  Residue Analyses: How they were used to assess the hazards 
     of contaminants to wildlife.  Pages 1 - 47 in W. N. Beyer, G. H. 
     Heinz, and A. W. Redmon-Norwood, eds. Environmental Contaminants in 
     Wildlife Interpreting Tissue Concentrations.  Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, 

Korschgen, C. E. 1989. Riverine and deepwater habitats for diving ducks.  Pages 
     157-180 in L. M. Smith, R. L. Pederson, and R. M. Kaminski, eds. 
     Habitat management for migrating and wintering waterfowl in North America. 
     Texas Tech. Univ. Press, Lubbock.  

Kronenberg, B. I., M. J. Watt, and S. C. Polischuk.  1998.  Forest-climate 
     interactions in the Quetico-Superior ecotone (northwest Ontario and 
     northern Minnesota).  Envir. Monitor. Assess. 50:173-187.

Larsen, C. P. S.  1997.  Spatial and temporal variations in boreal forest fire 
     frequency in northern Alberta.  J. Biogeogr.  24:663-673. 

Larsen, C. P. S., and G. M. MacDonald.  1998. An 840-year record of fire and 
     vegetation in a boreal white spruce forest.  Ecology 79:106-118.

Larson, D. L.  1994.  Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on 
     avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains.  Am. Midl. 
     Nat. 131:330-346.

Lee, P. C., S. Crites, M. Nietfield, H. Van Nguyen, and J. B. Stelfox.  1997.  
     Characteristics and origins of deadwood material in aspen-dominated boreal 
     forests.  Ecol. Applic. 7:691-701.

Longcore, J. R., H. Boyd, R. T. Brooks, G. M. Haramis, D. K. McNicol, J. R. 
     Newman, K. A. Smith, and F. Stearns.  1993.  Acidic depositions: effects 
     on wildlife and habitats.  Wildl. Soc. Tech. Rev. 93-1.  42pp. 

Marsh, P., and L. F. W. Lesack.  1996.  The hydrological regime of perched 
     lakes in the Mackenzie Delta: potential responses to climate change.  
     Limnol. Oceanogr. 41:849-856. 

McCullough, D. G., R.A. Werner, and D. Neumann.  1998.  Fire and insects in 
     northern and boreal forest ecosystems of North America.  Annu. Rev. 
     Entomol.  43:107-127.

Merola, P. R., and G. G. Chasko.  1989.  Waterfowl in Connecticut. Conn. Dep. 
     Environ. Prot., Wildl. Bur. Publ. No. WF-4.  Hartford, CN.

Mills, H. B., W. C. Starrett, and F. C. Bellrose.  1966.  Man's effect on the 
     fish and wildlife of the Illinois River.  Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. 
     Notes No. 57.  24pp.

Munro, J. A.  1941.  Studies of waterfowl in British Columbia. Greater scaup 
     duck, lesser scaup duck.  Can. J. Res. Sci. 19D:113-138.  

Nudds, T. D., and R. W. Cole.  1991.  Changes in populations and breeding 
     success of boreal forest ducks.  J. Wildl. Manage. 55:569-573.  

Pace, R. M., III, and A. D. Afton.  1999.  Direct Recovery rates of lesser 
     scaup banded in northwest Minnesota: sources of heterogeneity.  J. Wildl. 
     Manage. 63:389-395.

Paine, D. J.  1996.  Lead in Waterfowl.  Pages 251-264 in  W. N. Beyer, 
     G. H. Heinz, and A. W. Redmon-Norwood, eds. Environmental Contaminants in 
     Wildlife Interpreting Tissue Concentrations.  Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, 

Peakall, D. B.  1996.  Dieldrin and other cyclodiene Pesticides in Wildlife. 
     Pages 73-97 in W. N. Beyer, G. H. Heinz, and A. W. Redmon-Norwood, 
     eds.  Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife Interpreting Tissue 
     Concentrations.  Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.

Plöchl, M., and W. Cramer.  1995.  Possible impacts of global warming on 
     tundra and boreal forest ecosystems: comparison of some biogeochemical 
     models.  J. Biogeography 22:775-783.   

Province of Alberta.  1998.  The boreal forest natural region of Alberta. 
     Alberta Environ. Protect., Nat. Resour. Serv., Recreation and Protected 
     Areas Division and Natural Heritage Planning and Evaluation Branch.  
     Unpubl. Rep. 313pp. 

Rocque, D. A., and J. S. Barclay. 1999.  Greater scaup survival and population 
     status in the Atlantic Flyway. J. Wildl. Manage. in press. 

Rogers, J. P.  1962.  The ecological effects of drought on reproduction of the 
     lesser scaup, Aythya affinis (Eyton).  Ph.D. diss., Univ. Missouri, 
     Columbia.  99pp. 

Rogers, J. P.  1964.  Effect of drought on reproduction of the lesser scaup.  
     J. Wildl. Manage. 28:213-222. 

Rouse, W. R., M. S. V. Douglas, R. E. Hecky, A. E. Hershey, G. W. Kling, L. 
     Lesack, P. Marsh, M. McDonald, B. J. Nicholson, N. T. Roulet, and J. P. 
     Smol.  1997.  Effects of climate change on the freshwaters of arctic and 
     subarctic North America.  Hydrol. Processes 11:873-902.

Smith, V. E., J. M. Spurr, J. C. Filkins, and J. J. Jones. 1985. Organochlorine 
     contaminants of wintering ducks foraging on Detroit River sediments.  
     J. Great Lakes Res. 11:231-246.

Sorenson, L. G., R. Goldberg, T. L. Root, and M. G. Anderson.  1999.  Potential 
     effects of global warming on waterfowl populations breeding in the 
     northern Great Plains.  Climate Change  37: In press.

Stocks, B. J., M. A. Forsberg, T. J. Lynham, L. Mearns, B. M. Wotton, Q. Yang, 
     J-Z. Jin, K. Lawrence, G. R. Hartley, J. A. Mason, and D. W. McKenney. 
     1998.  Climate change and forest fire potential in Russian and Canadian 
     forests.  Climate Change 38:1-13.

Thompson, D. R.  1996.  Mercury in birds and Terrestrial Mammals. Pages 341-356
     in  W. N. Beyer, G. H. Heinz, and A. W. Redmon-Norwood, eds.  
     Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife Interpreting Tissue Concentrations. 
     Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.   

Thompson, I. D., M. D. Flannagan, B. M. Wotton, and R. Suffling. 1998.  The 
     effect of climate change on landscape diversity: an example in Ontario 
     forests.  Envir. Monitor. Assess. 49:213-233.

Trauger, D. L.  1971.  Population ecology of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) 
     in subarctic taiga.  Ph.D. diss., Iowa State Univ., Ames. 118pp.  

Turner, R. E., and N. N. Rabalais.  1994.  Coastal eutrophication near the 
     Mississippi River delta.  Nature 368:619-621.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Canadian Wildlife Service. 1986.  North 
     American Waterfowl Management Plan: a strategy for cooperation. U.S. Fish 
     Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.  19pp.  

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Canadian Wildlife Service. 1987. Standard 
     operating procedures for aerial waterfowl breeding ground population and 
     habitat surveys in North America.  U.S. Dep. Interior, U.S. Fish Wildlife 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998.  Waterfowl population status, 1998.  U.S. 
     Dep. Interior, U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv.  46pp.

Wormington, A., and J. H. Leach. 1992. Concentrations of migrant diving ducks 
     at Point Pelee National Park, Ontario, in response to invasion of zebra 
     mussels, Dreissena polymorpha. Can. Field-Nat. 106:376-380.

Previous Section -- Conclusions
Return to Contents
Next Section -- List of Workshop participants

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
Page Contact Information: Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Friday, 01-Feb-2013 18:13:47 EST
Sioux Falls, SD [sdww54]