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Bird Use and Nesting in Conventional,
Minimum-tillage, and Organic Cropland

Literature Cited


Basore, N. S., L. B. Best, and J. B. Wooley, Jr.  1986.  Bird nesting in Iowa 
     no-tillage and tilled cropland.  J. Wildl. Manage. 50:19-28.

Bent, A. C.  1968.  Life histories of North American cardinals, grosbeaks, 
     buntings, towhees, finches, sparrows, and allies. (Part 3).  U.S. Natl. 
     Mus. Bull. 237. 1889pp.

Best, L. B.  1986.  Conservation tillage: ecological traps for nesting birds?  
     Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14:308-317.

_____, R. C. Whitmore, and G. M. Booth.  1990.  Use of cornfields by birds 
     during the breeding season: the importance of edge habitat.  Am. Midl. 
     Nat. 123:84-99.

Brewer, L. W., C. J. Driver, R. J. Kendall, C. Zenier, and T. E. Lacher, Jr.  
     1988.  Effects of methyl parathion in ducks and duck broods.  Environ. 
     Toxicol. Chem. 7:375-379.

Buckland, S. T., D. R. Anderson, K. P. Burnham, and J. L. Laake.  1993.  Distance 
     sampling: estimating abundance of biological populations.  Chapman and Hall, 
     London, U.K. 446pp.

Burnham, K. P., D. R. Anderson, and J. L. Laake.  1980.  Estimation of density 
     from line transect sampling of biological populations.  Wildl. Monogr. 
     72. 202pp.

Castrale, J. S.  1985.  Responses of wildlife to various tillage conditions.  
     Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 50:142-156.

Conservation Technology Information Center.  1992.  Crop residue management 
     survey. West Lafayette, Ind. 38 pp.

Daubenmire, R.  1959.  A canopy-coverage method of vegetational analysis.  
     Northwest Sci. 33:43-64.

Dawson, D. G.  1981.  Counting birds for a relative measure (index) of density.  
     Stud. Avian Biol. 6:12-16.

Duebbert, H. F.  1987.  Conservation tillage and wildlife.  North Dakota Farm 
     Res. 44:30-31.

Flickinger, E. D., and G. W. Pendleton.  1994.  Bird use of agricultural fields 
     under reduced and conventional tillage in the Texas panhandle.  Wildl. Soc. 
     Bull. 22:34-42.

Forsyth, D. J.  1989.  Agricultural chemicals and prairie pothole wetlands: 
     meeting the needs of the resource and the farmer - Canadian perspective.  
     Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 54:59-66.

Graber, R. R., and J. W. Graber.  1963.  A comparative study of bird populations 
     in Illinois, 1906-1909 and 1956-1958.  Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 28:383-528. 

Hanson, H. C., and C. W. Kossack.  1963.  The mourning dove in Illinois.  Ill. 
     Nat. Hist. Surv. Tech. Bull. No. 2. 133pp.

Higgins, K. F.  1977.  Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota.  
     J. Wildl. Manage. 41:232-242.

Hill, E. F., and W. J. Fleming.  1982.  Anticholinesterase poisoning of birds: 
     field monitoring and diagnosis of acute poisoning.  Environ. Toxicol. 
     Chem. 1:27-38.

Johnson, D. H.  1979.  Estimating nest success: the Mayfield method and an 
     alternative.  Auk 96:651-661.

_____, and M. D. Schwartz.  1993.  The Conservation Reserve Program: habitat 
     for grassland birds.  Great Plains Res. 3:273-295.

Kantrud, H. A.  1993.  Duck nest success on Conservation Reserve Program land 
     in the prairie pothole region.  J. Soil and Water Conserv. 48:238-242.

Kirsch, L. M., H. F. Duebbert, and A. D. Kruse.  1978.  Grazing and haying 
     effects on habitats of upland nesting birds.  Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. 
     Resour. Conf. 43:486-497.

Klett, A. T., H. F. Duebbert, C. A. Faanes, and K. F. Higgins. 1986.  Techniques 
     for studying nest success of ducks in upland habitats in the prairie 
     pothole region. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 158. 24pp.

Lokemoen, J. T., and J. A. Beiser.  1995.  Bird use of minimum-tillage, organic, 
     and conventional cropland in Southeast North Dakota.  Proc. Man-ND Zero 
     Tillage Farmers Assoc. 17:73-82.

_____, and R. R. Koford.  1996.  Using candlers to determine the incubation 
     stage of passerine eggs.  J. Field Ornithol. 67:660-668.

Mayfield, H. F.  1975.  Suggestions for calculating nest success.  Wilson Bull. 
     87:456-466.

Milliken, G. A.  1984.  SAS tutorial; analysis of covariance - models, strategies, 
     and interpretations.  Proc. Ninth Annual SAS Users Group International 
     Conference. 9:990-999. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, N.C.

_____, and D. E. Johnson.  1984.  Analysis of messy data. Vol.1 Designed 
     experiments.  Van Norstrand Reinhold, New York, N.Y. 473pp.

Peterjohn, B. G., and J. R. Sauer.  1993.  North American breeding bird survey 
     annual summary 1990-1991.  Bird Populations 1:52-67.

Robbins, C. S., D. Bystrak, and P. H. Geissler.  1986.  The breeding bird survey: 
     its first fifteen years, 1965-1979. U. S. Fish and Wildl. Serv.  Resour. 
     Publ. 157. 196pp. 

Rodenhouse, N. L., and L. B. Best.  1983.  Breeding ecology of vesper sparrows 
     in corn and soybean fields.  Am. Midl. Nat. 110:265-275.

SAS Institute Inc.  1989a.  SAS/STAT user's guide, Version 6. Cary, N.C. 846pp.
 
_____,  1989b.  SAS/IML software: usage and reference, Version 6. Cary, N.C. 501pp.

Sauer, J. R., and B. K. Williams.  1989.  Generalized procedures for testing 
     hypotheses about survival or recovery rates.  J. Wildl. Manage. 53:137-142.

Stewart, R. E.  1975.  Breeding birds of North Dakota. Tri-college center for 
     environmental studies. Fargo, N.D. 295pp.

_____, and H. A. Kantrud.  1974.  Breeding waterfowl populations in the prairie 
     pothole region of North Dakota.  Condor 76:70-79.

_____, and      .  1972.  Population estimates of breeding birds in North 
     Dakota.  Auk 89:766-788. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture.  1992.  Universal soil loss equation.  Soil 
     Conserv. Serv. Field Off. Tech. Guide. - North Dakota. Sec 1, Part 1, 89pp.

Warburton, D. B. and W. D. Klimstra.  1984.  Wildlife use of no-till and 
     conventionally tilled corn fields.  J. Soil and Water Conserv. 39:327-330.

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