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Changes in Breeding Bird Populations in
North Dakota: 1967 to 1992-93

Table 1


Table 1. Breeding bird populations in 128 randomly selected quarter-sections in North Dakota.

Speciesa
No. indicated pairs
Migratory
statusb
Breeding
habitatc
Population
changed
BBS
trende
1967
1992
1993
Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) *** 11 4 7 SDM WETL NC -7.55 DD
Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus) *** 2 1 0 SDM WETL NC -0.22
Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena) *** 0 1 1 SDM WETL NC NA
Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) *** 40 48 22 SDM WETL NC -1.28
Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis) *** 0 2 1 SDM WETL NC -28.08 DD
American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) ** 0 0 2 SDM WETL NC -6.45 D
Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) ** 0 1 10 SDM WETL NC -3.51
American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus) *** 9 2 8 LDM WETL NC -3.54 DDD
Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) ** 2 1 3 SDM WETL NC +1.00
Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) *** 17 5 5 SDM WETL NC -4.76 DD
Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) * 0 11 28 SDM WETL NC +9.45 III
Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) * 1 2 12 SDM WETL NC +0.80
Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca) ** 45 11 44 SDM WETL NC -0.64
Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) * 212 113 200 SDM WETL NC +1.01
Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) * 171 23 58 SDM WETL D -3.68
Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera) ** 0 1 0 LDM WETL NC NA
Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) ** 286 99 145 LDM WETL D -3.20 DDD
Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata) ** 87 25 52 SDM WETL D +0.05
Gadwall (Anas strepera) ** 96 111 118 SDM WETL NC +0.36
American Wigeon (Anas americana) ** 25 22 32 SDM WETL NC -3.75 DD
Canvasback (Aythya valisineria) ** 10 4 5 SDM WETL NC -1.58
Redhead (Aythya americana) *** 27 19 42 SDM WETL NC -2.96
Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris) ** 2 0 1 SDM WETL NC -10.88 DDD
Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) *** 3 4 4 SDM WETL NC -0.63
Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) *** 0 0 1 SDM WETL NC -4.65 DD
Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus) * 0 0 2 SDM WETL NC +0.91 III
Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) *** 36 56 23 SDM WETL NC -3.20
Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) ** 2 0 1 SDM OPWO NC +4.12
Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus) ** 15 21 34 SDM GRAS NC +1.76
Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus) ** 0 1 0 SDM WOOD NC -1.74 D
Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) ** 3 2 8 SDM WOOD NC +3.76 III
Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus) ** 0 1 1 LDM WOOD NC NA
Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) ** 7 14 25 LDM OPTR I +3.04 III
Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) ** 7 11 16 SDM OPTR NC +1.61
Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis) ** 4 4 8 SDM GRAS NC +2.51
Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) * 0 2 3 SDM OTHR I +0.80
American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) ** 5 10 11 SDM OPTR NC +3.37
Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus) ** 0 3 3 SDM OTHR I +0.34
Gray Partridge (Perdix perdix) * 17 40 36 RES GRAS I +3.97 III
Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) * 3 24 51 RES GRAS I +4.24 III
Sharp-tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) * 18 46 32 RES GRAS I +5.30 II
Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) * 0 0 3 RES OPWO NC +6.66 III
Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) *** 0 1 0 SDM WETL NC +0.93 I
Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola) *** 3 5 2 SDM WETL NC -0.37
Sora (Porzana carolina) *** 32 41 78 SDM WETL NC -3.11 DDD
American Coot (Fulica americana) ** 348 76 124 SDM WETL D -7.53 DDD
Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) ** 5 2 1 SDM WETL NC NA
Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus) * 105 112 142 SDM WETL NC -1.65 D
American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana) ** 14 6 13 SDM WETL NC +0.19
Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) ** 18 16 27 LDM WETL NC -0.77
Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia) *** 12 12 9 LDM WETL NC -0.33
Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda) ** 63 106 89 LDM GRAS I +4.85 III
Marbled Godwit (Limosa fedoa) * 17 8 14 SDM GRAS NC +1.66
Common Snipe (Gallinago gallinago) ** 0 2 7 SDM WETL I +5.93
Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor) ** 73 30 36 LDM WETL D -6.43 DDD
Franklin's Gull (Larus pipixcan) ** 22 79 56 LDM WETL NC -9.11 D
Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis) ** 1 49 11 SDM WETL I -5.25
California Gull (Larus californicus) ** 0 0 2 SDM WETL NC -5.80 DDD
Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri) ** 3 6 4 SDM WETL NC -0.20
Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) ** 6 6 3 LDM WETL NC -0.00
Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) *** 118 39 39 LDM WETL D -5.69 D
Rock Dove (Columba livia) * 0 23 12 RES RESI I +1.60
Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) ** 292 339 337 SDM OPWO NC +3.70 III
Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus) *** 7 30 10 LDM WOOD NC +2.08
Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) * 2 4 9 RES OPWO NC +2.88 III
Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) ** 3 3 2 LDM GRAS NC -0.86
Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) ** 0 1 1 SDM OPWO NC NA
Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) * 0 1 1 SDM GRAS NC +1.65
Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) *** 10 12 16 LDM OPWO NC +0.58
Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) *** 1 0 3 LDM RESI NC +5.21 III
Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) *** 0 4 0 LDM OPWO NC NA
Belted Kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) ** 0 1 1 SDM WETL NC -0.46
Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) *** 2 9 7 SDM OPWO I -0.70
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius) ** 0 0 2 SDM WOOD NC +0.76
Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) ** 0 9 21 RES OPWO I +1.88 III
Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus) ** 2 12 11 RES OPWO I +0.93
Yellow-shafted Flicker (Colaptes auratus auratus) ** 40 25 35 SDM OPWO NC -3.85 DDD
Red-shafted Flicker (Colaptes auratus cafer) ** 12 5 4 SDM OPWO NC -0.82
Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) ** 0 0 1 RES WOOD NC +1.12
Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens) *** 2 10 7 LDM WOOD NC -1.46
Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) *** 0 0 1 LDM SHRU NC +3.34
Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) *** 30 17 37 LDM SHRU NC +1.63
Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus) *** 23 52 81 LDM OPWO I +1.99
Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) *** 2 2 3 SDM OPWO NC +0.78
Say's Phoebe (Sayornis saya) *** 6 4 17 SDM RESI NC +2.51 I
Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) *** 3 8 13 LDM WOOD NC +1.18
Western Kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis) *** 103 194 177 LDM OPTR I +5.99 III
Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus) *** 167 322 245 LDM OPTR I +6.47 III
Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) * 1253 1093 1661 SDM GRAS NC +0.30
Purple Martin (Progne subis) *** 2 1 0 LDM RESI NC -0.01
Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) *** 3 5 12 SDM WETL NC +2.64
No. Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) *** 7 1 3 LDM OTHR NC +0.81
Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia) *** 77 112 61 LDM OTHR NC -0.30
Cliff Swallow (Hirundo pyrrhonota) *** 152 343 226 LDM RESI NC +7.23 II
Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) *** 96 187 194 LDM RESI I +2.31 III
Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) *** 14 27 31 SDM OPWO I +1.66 I
Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica) * 20 15 15 RES OPTR NC -8.36 DD
American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) * 28 13 27 SDM OPWO NC +0.26
Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus) *** 3 28 31 RES OPWO I +1.27
White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) *** 3 7 9 RES OPWO NC -0.61
Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus) *** 10 23 27 SDM OTHR I +8.64
House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) *** 52 219 209 LDM OPWO I +3.55 III
Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis) *** 10 20 37 SDM GRAS NC +0.95
Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris) *** 51 113 153 SDM WETL NC +5.02
Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) ** 0 4 5 SDM OPWO I +0.48
Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides) ** 8 15 20 SDM OPWO NC +3.88
Veery (Catharus fuscescens) *** 11 5 3 LDM WOOD NC -2.99
American Robin (Turdus migratorius) ** 67 117 123 SDM OPWO I +3.51 III
Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis) *** 48 44 38 LDM SHRU NC -1.14
Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) *** 42 85 104 SDM SHRU I +2.19 III
Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii) ** 7 13 19 SDM GRAS NC -2.43 DD
Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum) *** 23 129 43 SDM OPWO NC +3.20 I
Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) ** 8 16 15 SDM SHRU I -0.41
European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) * 12 47 40 SDM RESI NC +0.18
Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons) *** 0 0 2 LDM WOOD NC +1.65
Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus) *** 19 23 41 LDM OPWO NC +5.06 III
Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) *** 13 20 42 LDM WOOD NC +0.19
Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia) *** 3 7 21 LDM OPWO NC -1.81
Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) *** 102 90 105 LDM OPWO NC -0.08
Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica) *** 0 0 2 LDM OPWO NC NA
American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) *** 13 10 20 LDM OPWO NC +0.48
Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) *** 6 20 29 LDM WOOD NC +0.47
Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) *** 2 0 0 LDM WOOD D NA
Mourning Warbler (Oporornis philadelphia) *** 0 1 1 LDM OPWO NC NA
Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) *** 134 91 175 LDM WETL NC -1.50 D
Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) *** 6 6 11 LDM SHRU NC +1.76
Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus) *** 2 3 5 LDM OPWO NC +0.14
Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus) ** 5 5 3 LDM OPWO NC +1.37
Blue Grosbeak (Guiraca caerulea) *** 1 1 0 LDM SHRU NC NA
Lazuli Bunting (Passerina amoena) *** 8 12 17 LDM SHRU NC +6.20 II
Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) *** 2 2 3 LDM OPWO NC +3.92 II
Dickcissel (Spiza americana) *** 63 34 14 LDM GRAS NC -2.64
Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus) *** 94 83 118 SDM OPWO NC +0.43
Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina) *** 22 51 70 LDM OPWO I +5.29 III
Clay-colored Sparrow (Spizella pallida) *** 364 261 289 LDM SHRU NC -3.51 DD
Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri) *** 2 1 3 LDM SHRU NC +1.57
Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla) *** 49 65 74 SDM SHRU NC +3.58
Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus) *** 195 224 393 SDM GRAS NC +2.49 III
Lark Sparrow (Chondestes grammacus) ** 40 52 41 LDM OPTR NC +0.42
Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys) *** 604 679 298 LDM GRAS NC -3.40 D
Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) ** 516 134 276 SDM GRAS D -2.78 D
Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii) ** 170 77 125 LDM GRAS NC -2.75
Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) *** 301 402 449 LDM GRAS I -5.24 DDD
Le Conte's Sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii) *** 6 2 14 SDM GRAS NC -5.02
Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni) *** 3 3 13 SDM WETL NC +1.15 D
Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) ** 55 100 130 SDM SHRU I -1.56
McCown's Longspur (Calcarius mccownii) ** 22 2 1 SDM GRAS D -2.27
Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus) ** 1129 602 755 SDM GRAS D -0.10
Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) *** 216 186 172 LDM GRAS NC -0.55
Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) ** 945 597 710 SDM WETL D -2.46 DDD
Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna) * 0 0 1 SDM GRAS NC +1.75
Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) * 926 487 646 SDM GRAS D +0.56
Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) ** 89 155 175 LDM WETL NC +0.65
Brewer's Blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus) ** 19 47 83 SDM SHRU I +6.49 II
Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) ** 140 300 299 SDM OPTR I +4.71 III
Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) ** 460 643 610 SDM OPWO I +3.09 III
Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius) *** 18 33 40 LDM OPWO I +7.99
Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula) *** 21 48 38 LDM OPWO I +2.37
Bullock's Oriole (Icterus bullockii) *** 0 0 2 LDM OPWO NC +4.30
Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus) * 0 0 14 SDM WOOD NC -0.63
American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) *** 106 146 132 SDM SHRU NC +2.13
House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) * 96 181 174 RES RESI I +2.48

aAsterisks following species names indicate peak breeding period during which counts were made: * early-nesting species, peak breeding period 24 April to 7 June; ** mid-nesting species, peak breeding period 14 May to 10 July; *** late-nesting species, peak breeding period 22 May to 21 July.

bLDM: Long-distance migrant; SDM: Short-distance migrant; RES: Permanent resident.

cBreeding habitat associations defined as: GRAS: Grassland; WETL: Wetland; WOOD: Woodland; SHRU: Shrubland; OPTR: Open habitat with scattered trees or shrubs; OPWO: Open or semi-open deciduous woodland and edge; RESI: Residential (rural development, urban, human-made structures); OTHR: Other habitats (mostly unvegetated habitats including clay buttes, cliffs, banks).

dPopulation change when the difference between 1967 and 1992 estimates (Appendix B) and the difference between 1967 and 1993 estimates were both significant at P </= 0.10 and only if both differences were in the same direction: D = decreasing, and I = increasing.

eAverage percent annual change on Breeding Bird Survey routes in North Dakota between 1967 and 1993: D = (decreasing) at P < 0.10, DD = at P < 0.05, and DDD = at P < 0.01; I = (increasing) at P < 0.10, II = at P < 0.05, and III = at P < 0.01; NA = not available.


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