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Evaluation of the Bird Conservation Area Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie Region Annual Report: 2001

Tables


Table 1.  Study sites in northwestern Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota tallgrass prairie patches.
Prairie Size category Landscape Plot size (ha) Nest search? Ownership
Crookston Region (Minnesota)
Foxboro small neutral 6.00 Yes SNA 1
Mentor SN small neutral 9.00 Yes WMA2
Shypoke small neutral 6.00 Yes WMA
Dugdale small neutral 6.00 No WMA
 
Chicog NW small hostile 3.75 Yes WMA
Mentor W small hostile 8.75 Yes WMA
Tilden small hostile 8.25 Yes WMA
Mentor NW small hostile 3.00 No WMA
 
Pankratz S large neutral 16.00 Yes TNC3
Tympanuchus large neutral 16.00 Yes WMA
Pankratz N large neutral 16.00 No7 TNC
Pembina Trail large neutral 16.00 No TNC
 
Burnham Creek large hostile 12.00 No7 WMA
Pankratz/Kertzonville large hostile 15.00 Yes TNC/WMA
Chicog W large hostile 12.00 Yes8 WMA
 
Glyndon Region (Minnesota)
Hoykens small neutral 5.75 Yes WPA4
"Refuge"5 small neutral 10.50 Yes State Game Refuge
Spring Creek small neutral 12.00 Yes WPA
Zimmerman small neutral 6.00 No TNC
Eide small neutral 1.00 No9 WPA
Sagebraaten small neutral 3.00 No WPA
 
"Private"6 small hostile 4.50 Yes WPA
Ulen small hostile 5.50 Yes WMA
Buffalo E small hostile 3.00 No State Park
 
Bicentennial large neutral 16.00 Yes SNA
Bluestem N large neutral 15.25 Yes7 TNC
Margherita large neutral 12.00 Yes8 TNC
Blazing Star large neutral 16.00 No TNC
Rice-Elliot large neutral 16.00 No TNC
 
Bluestem S large hostile 15.00 Yes7 TNC
Buffalo W large hostile 16.00 Yes State Park
Flickertail large hostile 12.00 Yes8 WPA
Fuglie large hostile 16.00 Yes7 WPA
 
Sheyenne National Grassland (North Dakota)
Shrike small hostile 2.75 Yes USFS
Pileated small hostile 7.00 Yes USFS
Camp small hostile 7.25 Yes USFS
Surprise small hostile 1.50 No USFS
 
North large neutral 16.00 Yes USFS
Highway large neutral 16.00 Yes USFS
Plum large neutral 16.00 Yes USFS
Southeast large neutral 16.00 Yes10 USFS
 
Savannah large hostile 16.00 Yes USFS
Eagle Point large hostile 14.00 Yes USFS
Hammock large hostile 16.00 No USFS
  1 Scientific and Natural Area
  2 Wildlife Management Area
  3 The Nature Conservancy
  4 Waterfowl Production Area
  5 State Game Refuge on north side of Hwy 26 at large rock pile, east of Hwy 9.
  6 State Game Refuge immediately south of the Shrike Unit
  7 Not used for nest-searching due to prescribed burning. Most plots could be censused before the burn, except for Fuglie and Bluestem prairies.
  8 Added as nest-search plot as a replacement for burnt plots.
  9 Not used for census due to bad condition of the road
10 Added as nest-search plot because crew found many nests by chance while setting up the census plot.
Table 2.  Mean bird density/100 ha ( standard error) in small and large plots in neutral and hostile landscapes, by region, in 2001. Species are in taxonomic order.
  Crookston Glyndon Sheyenne
Small Large Small Large Small Large
Neutral
N = 4
Hostile
N = 4
Neutral
N = 4
Hostile
N = 3
Neutral
N = 5
Hostile
N = 3
Neutral
N = 4
Hostile
N = 2
Hostile
N = 4
Neutral
N = 4
Hostile
N = 3
Mallard 0 0 1.6 1.6 0 10.1 6.7 0 4.7 4.7 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4 12.5 5.7 2.1 2.1
Gadwall 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.3 4.4 0
Northern Shoveler 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7.8 5.9 6.3 3.6
Blue-winged Teal 0 0 0 0 3.5 3.5 0 1.6 1.6 0 0 21.9 21.9 11.0 2.4
Green-winged Teal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.1 3.1 2.1 2.1
Redhead 0 0 0 0 3.5 3.5 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ring-necked Duck 0 0 0 0 3.5 3.5 0 0 0 0 0 0
Northern Pintail 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 1.6 0 0 4.7 3.0 0
Northern Harrier 0 0 3.1 3.1 0 1.9 1.9 0 1.6 1.6 0 0 0 0
Sharp-tailed Grouse 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 1.6 0
Greater Prairie-Chicken 0 0 12.8 8.5 0 0 0 9.4 4.0 0 0 1.6 1.6 0
American Coot 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.7 3.0 0
Sora 0 0 0 0 9.8 6.8 0 1.6 1.6 0 0 0 4.5 2.2
Killdeer 0 0 3.1 3.1 0 0 0 1.6 1.6 0 0 4.7 4.7 0
Upland Sandpiper 2.8 2.8 0 0 5.3 5.3 4.8 3.0 0 4.7 3.0 0 0 7.8 3.0 10.4 5.5
Marbled Godwit 0 0 1.6 1.6 0 0 0 4.7 3.0 0 0 3.1 1.8 0
Common Snipe 2.8 2.8 0 7.8 3.9 0 0 0 2.1   2.1 3.1 3.1 0 9.4 7.4 2.1 2.1
Wilson's Phalarope 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21.9 12.6 6.3 6.3
Black Tern 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18.8 9.2 2.1 2.1
Mourning Dove 5.6 5.6 0 0 0 8.6   8.6 0 1.6 1.6 0 0 1.6 1.6 2.1 2.1
Black-billed Cuckoo 0 0 0 0 0 7.4 7.4 0 0 0 0 0
Short-eared Owl 0 0 0 0 1.9 1.9 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ruby-throated Hummingbird 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20.1 15.9 0 0
Northern Flicker 0 0 0 0 0 7.4 7.4 1.6 1.6 0 0 0 2.1 2.1
Alder Flycatcher 0 0 0 0 0 11.1 11.1 1.6 1.6 0 0 0 0
Eastern Phoebe 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Eastern Kingbird 4.2 4.2 2.9 2.9 1.6 1.6 5.6 2.8 2.9 2.9 6.1 6.1 3.1 1.8 15.6 9.4 12.5 8.6 1.6 1.6 6.8 4.1
Northern Rough-winged Swallow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.6 3.6 0 0
Bank Swallow 0 3.0 3.0 1.6 1.6 0 0 0 6.3 6.3 3.1 3.1 0 1.6 1.6 4.2 4.2
Tree Swallow 2.8 2.8 0 0 0 10.1 6.7 17.2 9.6 1.6 1.6 7.3 1.0 0 0 0
Cliff Swallow 5.6 5.6 0 1.6 1.6 24.0 24.0 0 0 0 6.3 6.3 0 0 0
Barn Swallow 11.1 3.9 3.0 3.0 6.3 6.3 8.1 4.6 9.2 5.9 0 4.7 3.0 0 0 4.7 3.0 2.1 2.1
Sedge Wren 45.8 26.7 60.0 35.1 17.2 5.9 11.1 11.1 5.2 3.2 22.2 22.2 22.4 12.4 37.5 37.5 0 0 0
Marsh Wren 0 0 0 0 5.7 5.7 0 0 0 0 1.6 1.6 0
American Robin 4.2 4.2 0 0 2.7 2.7 0 0 0 0 27.3 27.3 0 2.4 2.4
Gray Catbird 0 0 0 0 0 11.1 11.1 0 0 0 0 2.4 2.4
European Starling 0 0 0 5.6 5.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Yellow Warbler 4.2 4.2 0 0 2.8 2.8 6.3 3.9 28.3 19.9 3.1 1.8 11.5 5.2 0 0 2.4 2.4
Common Yellowthroat 20.8 8.0 15.0 8.8 3.1 1.8 5.6 2.8 16.9 6.4 20.9 12.9 4.7 3.0 59.4 34.4 27.1 14.3 3.1 3.1 2.4 2.4
Field Sparrow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7.0 4.1 0 0
Clay-colored Sparrow 44.4 17.1 67.6 11.6 25.0 17.1 38.2 15.2 49.3 6.2 118.9 13.7 12.5 7.7 78.1 3.1 67.2 23.7 0 21.4 21.4
Chipping Sparrow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12.7 8.6 0 0
Grasshopper Sparrow 0 9.1 9.1 3.1 3.1 0 5.7 5.7 0 9.9 3.9 12.5 12.5 45.3 29.5 64.1 23.2 81.0 12.4
LeConte's Sparrow 38.9 9.6 58.3 21.7 42.2 19.3 11.1 5.6 1.9 1.9 7.4 7.4 19.8 14.8 9.4 9.4 0 4.7 1.6 0
Henslow's Sparrow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.4 2.4
Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow 4.2 4.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Savannah Sparrow 145.8 28.4 66.8 22.0 157.8 20.0 90.7 21.4 90.3 36.9 12.1 12.1 153.6 59.8 18.8 6.3 3.6 3.6 123.4 12.9 17.6 2.6
Vesper Sparrow 0 0 0 8.1 4.6 0 0 1.6 1.6 0 7.0 4.1 0 2.1 2.1
Lark Sparrow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7.0 4.1 0 2.4 2.4
Song Sparrow 0 0 0 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 0 0 8.3 8.3 0 0 0
Swamp Sparrow 8.3 8.3 0 0 0 12.8 10.1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Western Meadowlark 6.9 4.2 0 3.1 3.1 0 1.9 1.9 0 8.9 2.6 0 3.6 3.6 28.1 7.4 17.3 3.9
Bobolink male 45.8 12.5 15.6 6.2 51.6 11.2 19.1 9.9 91.4 24.3 33.0 16.8 44.3 12.9 17.7 1.0 87.9 51.7 42.2 13.1 58.3 8.3
Bobolink female 19.4 16.0 9.7 6.3 21.9 5.4 0 46.0 9.9 25.6 15.8 22.4 8.5 13.5 5.2 33.9 19.6 15.6 5.4 21.4 3.6
Brown-headed cowbird 2.8 2.8 0 7.8 5.9 2.8 2.8 0 0 0 0 0 4.7 3.0 0
Red-winged Blackbird 13.9 8.3 0 7.8 3.9 0 66.3 17.9 0 14.6 9.9 0 10.3 10.3 45.3 24.9 28.3 12.6
Brewer's Blackbird 9.7 5.7 0 0 11.0 7.4 19.3 8.0 0 0 0 0 3.1 3.1 2.1 2.1
Common Grackle 0 0 0 0 16.8 12.9 0 0 0 0 6.3 6.3 0
American Goldfinch 0 24.8 17.2 3.1 1.8 16.6 4.9 11.5 5.4 22.2 22.2 1.6 1.6 17.7 1.0 34.4 16.2 0 4.5 2.2
Total number of species 22 12 22 18 29 15 30 17 18 31 30
Table 3. Numbers of nests found, by study area, in 1998-2001, ordered by total number.
Species Crookston Glyndon Sheyenne Total All
1998 1999 20002001 1998 1999 2000 2001 19992000 2001 1998 1999 2000 2001
Clay-colored Sparrow 20 86 27 125 71 119 93 63 56 66 54 91 261 186 242 780
Savannah Sparrow 41 150 141 148 21 25 25 20 27 44 19 62 202 210 187 661
Bobolink 23 27 24 81 25 20 18 31 9 22 36 48 56 64 148 316
Red-winged Blackbird 6 2 7 6 6 4 4 8 28 13 30 12 34 24 44 114
Mallard 5 8 3 5 11 5 6 11 12 5 4 16 25 14 20 75
Blue-winged Teal 0 0 0 0 3 1 4 13 17 10 25 3 18 14 38 73
Western Meadowlark 1 6 2 0 3 1 2 3 25 17 11 4 32 21 14 71
Le Conte's Sparrow 5 21 5 7 2 0 4 2 0 0 0 7 21 9 9 46
Grasshopper Sparrow 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 8 8 12 3 12 9 15 39
Brewer's Blackbird 12 8 9 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 1 16 11 9 1 37
Field Sparrow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 16 7 0 13 16 7 36
Song Sparrow 2 2 0 1 5 8 10 2 3 0 0 7 13 10 3 33
Upland Sandpiper 0 1 6 1 7 3 2 0 3 1 4 7 7 9 5 28
Vesper Sparrow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 10 10 0 8 10 10 28
Lark Sparrow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 3 6 0 16 3 6 25
Sedge Wren 0 10 6 1 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 3 13 7 1 24
Eastern Kingbird 0 0 0 4 4 5 2 2 1 4 2 4 6 6 8 24
Mourning Dove 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 4 9 2 2 6 9 4 21
American Goldfinch 0 0 5 1 0 4 5 3 0 1 1 0 4 11 5 20
Common Yellowthroat 0 0 0 2 2 4 3 5 0 1 1 2 4 4 8 18
Common Snipe 2 3 0 3 1 1 0 0 1 1 5 3 5 1 8 17
Wilson's Phalarope 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 14 0 2 1 14 17
Greater Prairie-Chicken 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 2 0 0 1 4 3 5 4 16
Northern Shoveler 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 8 0 1 3 8 12
Yellow Warbler 0 1 0 0 0 2 6 0 0 0 3 0 3 6 3 12
American Woodcock 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 4 1 0 2 4 2 8
Marbled Godwit 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 7
Northern Harrier 0 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 6
Gadwall 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 3 0 2 5
Killdeer 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 5 5
Gray Catbird 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 5
Green-winged Teal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 2 1 3
Northern Pintail 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 3
Swamp Sparrow 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 3
Sora 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2
Tree Swallow 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2
Brown Thrasher 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2
Redhead 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Sharp-tailed Grouse 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
Wild Turkey 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
American Bittern 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Black-billed Cuckoo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Marsh Wren 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
American Robin 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Dickcissel 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Chipping Sparrow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Henslow's Sparrow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
Yellow-headed Blackbird 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
Total 119 331 241 389 176 221 195 176 241 243 273 295 793 679 838 2605
Region total—all years 1080  768  757     
Table 4.  Mayfield estimates of daily nest survival rate (May), its standard error (SE), percent of nests parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Cow), and sample size (N) in small and large plots in neutral and hostile landscapes, by region, in 2001.
a) Crookston Region
Species Small Large
Neutral Hostile NeutralHostile
May SE Cow N May SE Cow N May SE Cow N May SE Cow N
Clay-colored Sparrow 0.87 0.03 3 22 0.90 0.02 2 39 0.92 0.02 0 23 0.95 0.01 2 41
Savannah Sparrow 0.95 0.01 4 59 0.96 0.02 0 17 0.92 0.02 1 54 0.92 0.03 0 18
Bobolink 0.97 0.01 2 22 0.93 0.03 0 9 0.90   0.02 1 26 0.94 0.02 0 24
b) Glyndon Region
Species Small Large
Neutral Hostile NeutralHostile
May SE Cow N May SE Cow N May SE Cow N May SE Cow N
Clay-colored Sparrow 0.93 0.02 0 14 0.92 0.02 1 15 0.95 0.02 0 9 0.89 0.02 0 25
Savannah Sparrow 0.93 0.03 0 7 1.00 0.00 0 1 0.95 0.02 2 12 - - 0
Bobolink 0.96 0.01 1 16 0.92 0.04 0 7 0.98 0.02 1 6 1.00 0.00 0 2
c) Sheyenne National Grassland
Species Small Large
Neutral Hostile NeutralHostile
May SE Cow N May SE Cow N May SE Cow N May SE Cow N
Clay-colored Sparrow - - - 0.94 0.01 3 32 0.87 0.09 1 2 0.91 0.02 4 20
Savannah Sparrow - - - - 0 0 0.93 0.02 3 17 0.68 0.19 0 2
Bobolink - - - 0.93 0.04 1 7 0.91 0.03 1 15 0.89 0.03 8 14
Table 5.  Causes of nest failure in 2001.
  Number of nests Percent
Depredated: 313 37.4
        Egg-laying stage (2) (0.2)
        Incubation stage (162) (19.3)
        Nestling stage (149) (17.8)
Cowbird predation 18 2.1
Weather-related 6 0.7
Trampled 14 1.7
Burnt by prescribed fire 4 0.5
Unknown 10 1.2
Abandoned: 96 11.5
        Partial predation (25) (3.0)
        Cowbird parasitism (10) (1.2)
        Camera (8) (1.0)
        Unknown (53) (6.3)
Table 6. Percentage of grassland passerine nests that were parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds in 2001. Total numbers of nests are shown in parentheses.
Species Crookston
Percentage (N)
Glyndon
Percentage (N)
Sheyenne
Percentage (N)
Total
Percentage (N)
  Sedge Wren 0.0 (1) 0 0 0.0 (1)
  Field Sparrow 0 0 0.0 (7) 0.0 (7)
  Clay-colored Sparrow 5.6 (125) 1.6 (63) 14.8 (54) 6.6 (242)
  Grasshopper Sparrow 50.0 (2) 0.0 (1) 16.7 (12) 20.0 (15)
  Le Conte's Sparrow 0.0 (7) 0.0 (2) 0 0.0 (9)
  Henslow's Sparrow 0 0 0.0 (1) 0.0 (1)
  Savannah Sparrow 3.4 (148) 10.0 (20) 15.8 (19) 5.3 (187)
  Vesper Sparrow 0 0 0.0 (10) 0.0 (10)
  Lark Sparrow 0 0 16.7 (6) 16.7 (6)
  Western Meadowlark 0 0.0 (3) 18.2 (11) 14.3 (14)
  Bobolink 3.7 (81) 6.5 (31) 27.8 (36) 10.1 (148)
  Red-winged Blackbird 0.0 (6) 12.5 (8) 0.0 (30) 2.3 (44)
  Brewer's Blackbird 0 0 0.0 (1) 0.0 (1)
Total 4.3 (370) 4.7 (128) 13.9 (187) 7.0 (685)

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