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Breeding Birds of North Dakota

Appendix A


Common and Scientific Names of Plants Referred To in Text

[Names taken from eighth edition of Gray's Manual of Botany (Fernald 1950) except for a few western species which are taken from the Handbook of North Dakota Plants (Stevens 1963).]

  • Absinth (Artemisia absinthium)
  • Alfalfa (Medicago saliva)
  • Alkali bulrush (Scirpus paludosus)
  • Alkaligrass (Puccinellia nuttalliana)
  • Alumroot (Heuchera richardsonii)
  • American elm (Ulmus americana)
  • American hazelnut (Corylus americana)
  • Aromatic aster (Aster oblongifolius)
  • Arrowleaf aster (Aster sagittifolius)
  • Arumleaf arrowhead (Sagittaria cuneata)
  • Ball cactus (Mamillaria vivipara)
  • Balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera)
  • Baltic rush (Juncus balticus)
  • Baneberry (Actuea rubra)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Basswood (Tilia americana)
  • Bastard toadflax (Comandra pallida)
  • Beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta)
  • Beaked sedge (Carex rostrata)
  • Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi)
  • Biennial wormwood (Artemisia biennia)
  • Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi)
  • Big sandgrass (Calamovilfa longifolia)
  • Bigsheath pondweed (Potamogeton vaginatus)
  • Bittersweet (Celastrus scandens)
  • Black ash (Fraxinus nigra)
  • Black currant (Ribes americanum)
  • Black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia serotina)
  • Black Hills spruce (Picea alba)
  • Black sage (Artemisia tridentata)
  • Bladderpod (Lesquerella arenosa)
  • Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)
  • Blue beardtongue (Penstemum nitidus)
  • Bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum)
  • Blue-eyed-grass (Sisyrinchium angustifolium)
  • Blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis)
  • Blue wild lettuce (Lactuca pulchella)
  • Bog star (Parnassia palustris)
  • Bottlebrush grass (Hystrix patula)
  • Box elder (Acer negundo)
  • Branched eriogonum (Eriogonum multiceps)
  • Broadleaf stichwort (Arenaria lateriflora)
  • Brome grasses (Bromus spp.)
  • Broomweed (Cutierrezia sarothrae)
  • Buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica)
  • Buffalo-bean (Astragalus caryocarpus)
  • Buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides)
  • Bullberry (Shepherdia argentea)
  • Bulrush (Scirpus spp.)
  • Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa)
  • Butte candle (Cryptantha bradburiana)
  • Butte primrose (Oenothera caespitosa)
  • Canada anemone (Anemone canadensis)
  • Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)
  • Canada wild rye (Elymus canadensis)
  • Caragana (Caragana arborescens)
  • Carrion flower (Smilax herbacea)
  • Cattails (Typha spp.)
  • Chamaerhodos (Chamaerhodos erecta)
  • Charming sedge (Carex blanda)
  • Chinese elm (Ulmus pumila)
  • Choke cherry (Prunus virginiana)
  • Claspingleaf dogbane (Apocynum sibiricum)
  • Claspingleaf pondweed (Potamogeton richardsonii)
  • Clustered sunflower (Helianthus rydbergii)
  • Colorado rubber plant (Hymenoxys richardsonii)
  • Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis)
  • Combleaf milkvetch (Astragalus pectinatus)
  • Common arrowgrass (Triglochin maritima)
  • Common bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris)
  • Common blue violet ( Viola papilionacea)
  • Common cattail (Typha latifolia)
  • Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)
  • Common evening primrose (Oenothera biennia)
  • Common pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)
  • Common spikerush (Eleocharis palustris)
  • Common waterhemlock (Cicuta maculata)
  • Common watermilfoil (Myriophyllum exalbescens)
  • Common waterstarwort (Callitriche palustris)
  • Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • Cottonweed (Anemone cylindrica)
  • Cottonwood (Populus deltoides)
  • Cow parsnip (Heracleum maximum)
  • Creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis)
  • Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum)
  • Daisy fleabane (Erigeron strigosus)
  • Dark-green bulrush (Scirpus atrovirens)
  • Death camas (Zigadenus gramineus)
  • Downy arrowwood ( Viburnum rafinesquianum)
  • Dudley's rush (Juncus dudleyi)
  • Dwarf corner (Corpus canadensis)
  • Dwarf juniper (Juniperus communis)
  • Early cinquefoil (Potentilla concinna)
  • Early goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis)
  • Early meadowrue (Thalictrum venulosum)
  • Eelgrass pondweed (Potamogeton zosteriformis)
  • Engelmann's spikerush (Eleocharis engelmanni)
  • False aster (Boltonia latisquama)
  • False boneset (Kuhnia eupatorioides)
  • False gromwell (Onosmodium occidentale)
  • False lily-of-the valley (Maianthemum canadense)
  • False lupine (Thermopsis rhombifolia)
  • False ragweed (Iva xanthifolia)
  • False Solomon's seal (Smilacina stellata)
  • Fescue sedge (Carex brevior)
  • Field mustard (Brassica kaber)
  • Flax (Linum usitatissimum)
  • Flixweed (Descurainia sophia)
  • Fowl bluegrass (Poa palustris)
  • Fowl mannagrass (Clyceria striata)
  • Fox sedge (Carex vulpinoidea)
  • Fringed loosestrife (Lysimachia ciliata)
  • Fringed sage (Artemisia frigida)
  • Gaillardia (Caillardia aristata)
  • Gaura (Caura coccinea)
  • Germander (Teucrium occidentale)
  • Giant burreed (Sparganium eurycarpum)
  • Giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea)
  • Golden aster (Chrysopsis villosa)
  • Golden currant (Ribes odoratum)
  • Golden dock (Rumex maritimus)
  • Golden eriogonum (Eriogonum flavam)
  • Golden willow (Salix vitellina)
  • Grasses (plants of the family, Gramineae)
  • Grassleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pusillus)
  • Gray goldenrod (Solidago nemoralis)
  • Gray ragwort (Senecio canus)
  • Greasewood (Sarcobates vermiculatus)
  • Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)
  • Green needlegrass (Stipa viridula)
  • Green sage (Artemisia glauca)
  • Gumweed (Crindelia squarrosa)
  • Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis)
  • Hairy puccoon (Lithospermum canescens)
  • Haplopappus (Haplopappus spinulosus)
  • Hardstem bulrush (Scirpus acutus)
  • Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia)
  • Hawthorn (Cratuegus chrysoparia)
  • Hazelnut (Corylus spp.)
  • Hedge hyssop (Cratiola neglecta)
  • Highbush cranberry (Viburnum trilobum)
  • Hoary willow (Salix candida)
  • Honewort (Cryptotoenia canadensis)
  • Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virgin iana)
  • Horned pondweed (Zannichellia palustris)
  • Horseweed (Erigeron canadensis)
  • Hybrid cattail (Typha glauca)
  • Indian breadroot (Psoralea esculenta)
  • Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans)
  • Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides)
  • Intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium)
  • Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisuema atrorubens)
  • Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus)
  • Joe-pye weed (Eupatorium maculatum)
  • Kalm's lobelia (Lobelia kalmii)
  • Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis)
  • Kidneyleaf buttercup (Ranunculus abortivus)
  • Kochia (Kochia scoparia)
  • Lanceleaf loosestrife (Lysimachia hybrida)
  • Large bellwort (Uvularia grandiflora)
  • Large-flowered dock (Rumex venosus)
  • Lead plant (Amorpha canescens)
  • Leiberg's panicum (Panicum leibergii)
  • Lewis' wild flax (Linum lewisi)
  • Lilac (Syringa vulgaris)
  • Limber pine (Pinusflexilis)
  • Little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius)
  • Little ricegrass (Oryzopsis micrantha)
  • Longhead coneflower (Ratibida columnifera)
  • Lowland white aster (Aster simplex)
  • Macoun's buttercup (Ranunculus macouni)
  • Mariposa lily (Calochortus nuttalli)
  • Marsh cress (Rorippa islandica)
  • Marsh hedgenettle (Stachys palustris)
  • Marsh-marigold (Caltha palustris)
  • Marsh muhly (Muhlenbergia glomerata)
  • Marsh skullcap (Scutellaria epilobiifolia)
  • Marsh smartweed (Polygonum coccineum)
  • Mat catsfoot (Antennaria microphylla)
  • Mat mutely (Muhlenbergia richardsonis)
  • Meadow hawksbeard (Crepis runcinata)
  • Meadow parsnip (Zizia aptera)
  • Meadow sedge (Carex laeviconica)
  • Missouri gooseberry (Ribes missouriense)
  • Missouri milkvetch (Astragalus missouriensis)
  • Moss phlox (Phlox hoodii)
  • Moundscale (Atriplex nuttalli)
  • Muskgrass (Chara spp.)
  • Nannyberry (Viburnum lentago)
  • Narrowleaf beardtongue (Penstemon angustifolius)
  • Narrowleaf blazingstar (Liatris punctata)
  • Narrowleaf cottongrass (Eriophyllum angustifolium)
  • Narrowleaf dock (Rumex mexicanus)
  • Narrowleaf golden rod (Solidago gram inifolia)
  • Narrowleaf milkvetch (Astragalus tenellus)
  • Narrowleaf sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani)
  • Narrowleaf waterplantain (Alisma gramineum)
  • Needle-and-thread (Stipa comata)
  • Needleleaf sedge (Carex stenophylla)
  • Needle spikerush (Eleocharis acicularis)
  • Nodding fescue (Festuca obtusa)
  • Nodding muhly (Muhlenbergia racemosa)
  • Nodding smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium)
  • Nodding trillium (Trillium cernuum)
  • Northern bedstraw (Galium boreale)
  • Northern reedgrass (Calamagrostis inexpansa)
  • Northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis)
  • Nuttall's violet (Viola nuttallii)
  • Oats (Avena saliva)
  • Orach (Atriplex patula)
  • Ovalleaf milkweed (Asclepias ovalifolia)
  • Owl-clover (Orthocarpus luteus)
  • Palespike lobelia (Lobelia spicata)
  • Paper birch (Betula papyrifera)
  • Pasque flower (Anemone patens)
  • Peach leaf willow (Salix amygdaloides)
  • Perennial ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya)
  • Phragmites (Phragmites communis)
  • Pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica)
  • Pink wild onion (Allium stellatum)
  • Pink wintergreen (Pyrola asarifolia)
  • Pink wood violet (Viola rugulosa)
  • Plains muhly (Muhlenbergia cuspidata)
  • Plains reedgrass (Calamagrostis montanensis)
  • Poison ivy (Rhus radicans)
  • Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)
  • Porcupine grass (Stipa spartea)
  • Potato (Solanum tuberosum)
  • Prairie buttercup (Ranunculus rhomboideus)
  • Prairie chickweed (Cerastium arvense)
  • Prairie cinquefoil (Potentilla pensylvanica)
  • Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata)
  • Prairie dandelion (Agoseris glauca)
  • Prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis)
  • Prairie junegrass (Koeleria cristata)
  • Prairie painted cup (Castilleja sessiliflora)
  • Prairie plantain (Plantago purshill)
  • Prairie ragwort (Senecio plattensis)
  • Prairie rose (Rosa arkansana)
  • Prairie thistle (Cirsium flodmani)
  • Prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum)
  • Prickly pear (Opuntia polycantha)
  • Prickly rose (Rosa acicularis)
  • Purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia)
  • Purple loco (Oxytropis lambertii)
  • Purple prairie-clover (Petalostemum purpureum)
  • Purslane speedwell ( Veronica peregrina)
  • Quackgrass (Agropyron repens)
  • Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)
  • Rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus graveolens)
  • Racemose milkvetch (Astragalus racemosus)
  • Rattlesnake fern (Botrychium virginianum)
  • Rattlesnake-root (Prenanthes racemosa)
  • Red lily (Lilium philadelphicum)
  • Red mallow (Sphaeralcea coccinea)
  • Red-osier dogwood (Corpus stolonifera)
  • Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus)
  • Reed (Phragmites communis)
  • Rillscale (Atriplex dioica)
  • River bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis)
  • Rocky Mountain cedar (Juniperus scopulorum)
  • Rose (Rosa sp.)
  • Rough cinquefoil (Potentilla norvegica)
  • Round-head blazingstar (Liatris ligulistylis)
  • Rush aster (Aster junciformis)
  • Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia)
  • Russian thistle (Salsola kali)
  • Rye (Secale cereale)
  • Sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus)
  • Saltgrass (Distichlis stricta)
  • Saltwater wigeongrass (Ruppia maritima)
  • Sandbar willow (Salix interior)
  • Sandlily (Leucocrinum montanum)
  • Sartwell's sedge (Carex sartwellii)
  • Saskatoon serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia)
  • Sea-blite (Sueeda depressa)
  • Sedges (Carex spp.)
  • Short-awn foxtail (Alopecurus acqualis)
  • Shrub willows (Salix spp.)
  • Side-oats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula)
  • Silverberry (Eleagnus commutata)
  • Silverleaf (Psoralea argophylla)
  • Silver sage (Artemisia cana)
  • Silverweed (Potentilla anserina)
  • Six-weeks fescue (Festuca octoflora)
  • Skeleton weed (Lygodesmia juncea)
  • Skunk sumac (Rhus trilobata)
  • Slender beardtongue (Penstemon gracilis)
  • Slender bulrush (Scirpus heterochaetus)
  • Slender loco (Oxytropis gracilis)
  • Slender milkvetch (Astragalus Flexuosus)
  • Slender sedge (Carex praegracilis)
  • Slender spikerush (Eleocharis calva)
  • Slender wedgegrass (Sphenopholis intermedia)
  • Slender wheatgrass (Agropyron trachycaulum)
  • Slender willow (Salixpetiolaris)
  • Sloughgrass (Beckmannia syzigachne)
  • Slough sedge (Carex atherodes)
  • Small blue violet (Viola adunca)
  • Small erysimum (Erysimum inconspicuum)
  • Smallflower aster (Aster ericoides)
  • Small fringed gentian (Gentiana procera)
  • Smooth blue aster (Aster laevis)
  • Smooth brome (Bromus inermis)
  • Smooth camas (Zigadenus elegans)
  • Smooth fleabane (Erigeron glabellus)
  • Smooth rose (Rosa blanda)
  • Smooth sumac (Rhus glabra)
  • Soapweed yucca ( Yucca glauca)
  • Soft goldenrod (Solidago mollis)
  • Softstem bulrush (Scirpus validus)
  • Solomon's seal (Polygonatum canaliculatum)
  • Sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis)
  • Soy bean (Glycine max)
  • Speckled alder (Alnus rugosa)
  • Spikemoss (Selaginella densa)
  • Spike-oats (Helictotrichon hooker!)
  • Spiny saltbush (A triplex confertifolia)
  • Spiraea (Spiraea alba)
  • Spotted touch-me-not (Impatiens capensis)
  • Sprengel's sedge (Carex sprengelii)
  • Spruce (Picea spp.)
  • Stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida)
  • Stiffstem flax (Linum rigidum)
  • Stiff sunflower (Helianthus laetiflorus)
  • Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris)
  • Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
  • Swamp birch (Betula pumila)
  • Swamp buttercup (Ranunculus septentrionalis)
  • Swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)
  • Sweet cicely (Osmorhiza longistylis)
  • Sweetclover (Melilotus spp.)
  • Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)
  • Tall cinquefoil (Potentilla arguta)
  • Tall coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata)
  • Tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima)
  • Tall mannagrass (Glyceria grandis)
  • Tall meadowrue (Thalictrum dasycarpum)
  • Tall nettle (Urtica procera)
  • Tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum)
  • Tartarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica)
  • Thickspike wheatgrass (Agropyron dasystachyum)
  • Threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia)
  • Ticklegrass (Agrostis scabra)
  • Toothleaf evening primrose (Oenothera serrulata)
  • Torch flower (Geum triflorum)
  • Torrey's rush (Juncus torreyi)
  • Tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa)
  • Tufted loosestrife (Lysimachia thyrsiflora)
  • Tufted milkvetch (Astragalus triphyllus)
  • Upland wormwood (Artemisia caudata)
  • Variableleaf pondweed (Potamogeton gramineus)
  • Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus)
  • Waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum)
  • Water parsnip (Slum suave)
  • Water sedge (Carex aquatilis)
  • Western black birch (Betula occidentalis)
  • Western dock (Rumex occidentalis)
  • Western ironweed (Vernonia fasciculata)
  • Western rose (Rosa woodsii)
  • Western wall-flower (Erysimum asperum)
  • Western waterhorehound (Lycopus asper)
  • Western waterplantain (Alisma triviale)
  • Western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii)
  • Western wigeongrass (Ruppia occidentalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivam)
  • Wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.)
  • White evens (Geum canadense)
  • White beardtongue (Penstemon albidus)
  • White larkspur (Delphinium virescens)
  • White milkwort (Polygala alba)
  • White onion (Allium textile)
  • White sage (Artemisia ludoviciana)
  • White sweetclover (Melilotus alba)
  • Whitetop (Scolochloa festucacea)
  • White upland aster (Aster ptarmicoides)
  • White watercrowfoot (Ranunculus trichophyllus)
  • Wild barley (Hordeum jubatum)
  • Wild cucumber (Echinocystis lobata)
  • Wild four-o-clock (Mirabilis nyctaginea)
  • Wild ginger (Asarum canadense)
  • Wild grape (Vitis riparia)
  • Wild licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota)
  • Wild millet (Echinochloa crusgalii)
  • Wild mint (Mentha arvensis)
  • Wild parsley (Lomatium orientale)
  • Wild plum (Prunus americana)
  • Wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)
  • Wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana)
  • Wild vetch (Vicia americana)
  • Willows (Salix spp.)
  • Winter fat (Eurotia lanata)
  • Wolfberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)
  • Wood leek (Allium tricoccum)
  • Wood nettle (Laportea canadensis)
  • Woodsia fern (Woodsia oregana)
  • Wood stickseed (Hackelia americana)
  • Woolly sedge (Carex lanuginosa)
  • Wormseed mustard (Erysimum cheiranthoides)
  • Yarrow (Achillea lanulosa)
  • Yellow evens (Geum aleppicum)
  • Yellow sedge (Carex pensylvanica)
  • Yellow stargrass (Hypoxia hirsuta)
  • Yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis)
  • Yellow whitlowwort (Draba micrantha)
  • Yellow wood parsnip (Zizia aurea)
  • Yellow wood violet (Viola pensylvanica)
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