Mech NPR Interview Waterfowl Nest Search
USGS - science for a changing world

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

  Home About NPWRC Our Science Staff Employment Contacts Common Questions About the Site

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Project Quick Jump

Climate Change Threatened and Endangered Species Landscapes & Wildlife: Imagery & Modeling Fire Wetlands and Waterbirds Agriculture Invasives Predation Alternative Energy List all projects

RSS Feeds

RSS Publications
RSS USGS News Releases
RSS FAQs
What is RSS?

Publication Search

Search NPWRC Publications

Study Title: Cottonwood Lake Study Area

    Science Strategy: Climate Change

    Keywords: global; carbon; sequestration; cottonwood lake




Staff Involvement Satellite image of Cottonwood Lake.

History: The Cottonwood Lake Study Area is located in Stutsman County, North Dakota, about 35 miles northwest of the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) headquarters near Jamestown. Wetlands in the vicinity of the Cottonwood Lake Study Area occupy depressions in a landscape that was formed by glacial processes during the Pleistocene epoch. These wetlands, known as prairie pothole wetlands in the United States and sloughs in Canada, are important breeding areas for migratory waterfowl and other wetland-dependent wildlife.

    More on History of Project »

    George Swanson, who was the first to conduct biological research at the Cottonwood Lake Study Area, began his career at NPWRC in 1966. Swanson's early efforts concentrated on waterfowl food habits using experimental wetlands at the NPWRC and characterization of natural conditions at two federally owned Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA), which are administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Due to the proximity of these WPA's to Cottonwood Lake, the two sites are collectively known as the Cottonwood Lake Study Area. A 227-acre parcel chosen for study by Swanson includes eight seasonally flooded and nine semipermanently flooded wetlands and it is located on the Eddy WPA. The other site included in the Cottonwood Lake Study Area contains a large saline wetland that is about 2 miles west on the Schuler WPA.

    As studies of the chemical characteristics, invertebrate communities and plant communities of the wetlands progressed, Swanson realized that natural changes in water level strongly influenced the characteristics and biological communities of the wetlands and, therefore, the use of those wetlands by waterfowl. In 1977, Swanson met Tom Winter, a research hydrologist from the U.S. Geological Survey in Lakewood, Colorado, who had been looking for sites in the upper Midwest at which to conduct research on hydrological processes. Their initial conversations led to a "grass roots" interagency research program to define hydrological characteristics and processes responsible for water level changes and changes in the biological communities of the wetlands.

    The cooperative effort of Swanson and Winter was a logical extension of an earlier cooperative study between NPWRC and USGS scientists. In the late 1950s, the possibility that irrigation from the Garrison Diversion would change the hydrological characteristics of the landscape and possibly affect waterfowl habitat led to detailed studies of prairie wetlands by hydrologists from the U.S. Geological Survey. These studies, by William Eisenlohr, Jr., Charles Sloan, and Jelmer Shjeflo, initially focused on evapotranspiration from prairie pothole wetlands in different parts of North Dakota, including wetlands within two miles of the Cottonwood Lake, but were later expanded to examine wetland relations with ground water. Beginning in 1962, Fish and Wildlife biologists Robert Stewart Sr. and Harold Kantrud, who later became members of the NPWRC staff, surveyed vegetation of the wetlands studied by the hydrologists. Stewart and Kantrud's work led to definition of the range of salinity and water permanence tolerated by different plant species.

    In his effort to understand the different factors affecting use of wetlands by waterfowl, from 1966 to 1976 Swanson undertook a study of the chemical characteristics of wetlands in Stutsman and Kidder counties, North Dakota. Aided by NPWRC chemist Vyto Adomaitis and the chemical laboratory at NPWRC, Swanson examined 178 wetlands. Swanson and Adomaitis found a wide range of salinity and chemical types in the wetlands. Eisenlohr and others found that wetlands receiving ground water discharge were more saline than those that did not receive ground water discharge. Thus, salinity differences among wetlands in the large area examined by Swanson and Adomaitis were likely due to variations in the influence of ground water. Armed with this knowledge, Swanson sought to involve someone with an interest in hydrochemisty at his study site, and in 1979, Jim LaBaugh, another USGS research scientist from Lakewood, Colorado, joined the team to assist Swanson with the interpretation of the relation of wetland chemical characteristics to hydrological characteristics and wetland biota at the site. When the NPWRC chemical laboratory closed in 1983, LaBaugh assumed responsibility for the water chemistry work.

    In 1978, Winter and colleagues from the USGS office in Bismarck, North Dakota, began to install a network of wells and piezometers to monitor ground-water movement at the study site. To understand how the entire hydrologic cycle affected the wetlands, Winter also installed instruments to measure rainfall and evaporation, and enlisted Alex Sturrock, a USGS evaporation specialist, to help with analysis and interpretation of evaporation data. Throughout the subsequent study, additional wells and refinements in meterological equipment have been made at the site, including use of automatic data recorders, making it possible to monitor both weather and ground-water elevation changes year-round. Don Rosenberry, also a research scientist from the USGS in Lakewood, Colorado, joined the team in 1985, assisting with instrumentation and focusing on nearshore changes in flow between ground water and wetlands.

    The ongoing research at the site provided a strong biological and hydrogeochemical framework that has stimulated much graduate research at the site. Karen Poiani, under the direction of Carter Johnson from Virginia Polytechnic and State University, conducted her masters and doctoral studies on hydrophytic seed banks and the response of vegetation in semipermanent wetlands to climate change. Richard Nelson conducted his doctoral research at the site on chironomid midges, an important food resource for birds, while attending North Dakota State University under the direction of Malcolm Butler. Masters student Kevin Swanson studied the mineral content of glacial till at the site, under the direction of Carl Bowser from the University of Wisconsin. Greg Summers, a masters student of Mario Biondini of North Dakota State University, examined the role of wetlands in nitrogen cycles of the prairie. James Arndt, while a student of James Richardson of North Dakota State University, conducted doctoral research on wetland soils, biogeochemical transformations, and relation to hydrologic gradients at the site. A student of Arnold van der Valk, Paul Wetzel, from Iowa State University collected some samples from the Cottonwood Lake area for his research on mycorrhizal fungi.

    Aside from George Swanson, Tom Winter, Jim LaBaugh, and Don Rosenberry, much additional research has been conducted by other researchers interested in working at the site and attracted by its interdisciplinary research opportunities. Jimmy Richardson and Mario Biondini of North Dakota State University have examined wetland soils and biogeochemical transformation in those soils. Bruce Hanson, a wildife biologist from NPWRC, developed a key for Coleoptera at the site. Rick Forester, an ostracod specialist from the USGS in Denver, and Emi Ito of Minnesota State University have examined ostracods from the site. Hal Kantrud, also from NPWRC, has examined vegetation at the site. Gas samples from the site collected by David Mushet, NPWRC, and analyzed at the Trout Lake Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin, were used in an inter-site comparison of CO2 and methane saturation in inland waters of the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research sites and related sites. William Arnold, a professor in the Civil Engineering Department at the University of Minnesota and his collaborator, Yo Chin, from Ohio State University have been investigating the fate of iron and sulfur in prairie wetlands using samples collected from the study site. Former NPWRC Research Wildlife Biologist Robert Gleason, now the Director of NPWRC, along with NPWRC Soil Scientist Ray Finocchiaro, Charlie Dahl, and Brian Tangen is currently investigating greenhouse gas emissions from study area wetlands and surrounding uplands.

    Upon Swanson's retirement in 1992, the Fish and Wildlife Service erected a bronze plaque at the entrance to the Waterfowl Production Area he studied for so long, dedicating the area to him in honor of his contributions to wetland management. Much of the research at the Cottonwood Lake Study Area has laid the foundation for science-based management of prairie wetlands. Through Swanson's dedication to the study of waterfowl and prairie wetlands, the increasingly comprehensive Cottonwood Lake Study Area data set and ongoing process research has served as a magnet, attracting researchers from a number of universities and other government agencies. This interest has resulted in cooperative studies on wetland soils, sedimentation, gas exchange, primary production, seedbanks, climate change, pesticide effects on waterfowl, mineral content of glacial till, and a variety of other topics at the site.

    Chip Euliss, the NPWRC research biologist who inherited Swanson's role as Team Leader, has continued the tradition of cooperative research at the Cottonwood Lake area study site. In 1993, when USGS funding for water chemistry work was discontinued, Euliss recruited Rick Nelson from the Bismarck (North Dakota) office of the Bureau of Reclamation. Nelson had been interested in the Cottonwood site and was using it as a control site for comparison with restored wetlands. With the USGS not financially able to continue its role in chemistry studies, and the need to use Cottonwood Lake Study Area wetlands as reference wetlands, Nelson stepped in to continue chemical analysis at the site. Since 1993 he has been conducting water chemistry research at the site and, as done by his predecessors, shares data with all collaborators. The vagaries of funding in the 1980s had limited the biological research done at the site by Swanson. However, Euliss was able to expand the biological research at the site to include detailed monitoring of invertebrates, amphibians, and birds to complement the long-term examination of vegetation. These studies have provided new insights about population changes related to hydrochemical dynamics of the wetlands and continue under the direction of Euliss and another NPWRC Research Wildlife Biologist, David Mushet. USGS Senior Scientist Marty Goldhaber and his research team have become the most recent additions to the Cottonwood Lake Study Area’s grouping of scientific experts. Dr. Goldhaber and his team of geochemistry experts are providing unique new insights into the role key role of geology and associated geochemical processes in shaping the water chemistry, and ultimately the biotic communities of prairie wetlands.

    Today the Cottonwood Lake Study Area is internationally recognized as one of the most intensively studied wetland complexes in North America. More than 80 scientific publications, graduate theses, and presentations at scientific conferences resulting from these studies provide the bulk of information currently available to guide wetland management in the prairie pothole region of the U.S. and Canada. According to Euliss, one of the greatest contributions of the Cottonwood Lake effort is that it "provides invaluable baseline data on the hydrological, chemical, and biological attributes upon which to base comparisons with ongoing research, including studies on wetland restoration and wetland monitoring." In addition, the understanding of the interrelation of hydrological, chemical, and biological processes revealed by the interdisciplinary research conducted at the site provides the scientific foundation that is being used in the development of an integrated landscape modeling and monitoring system that will allow managers and decision makers to better understand the outcomes of various management actions and decisions.

    The long-term study has been conducted during natural climate extremes, from drought to deluge, so the role natural variation in climate and water levels in making prairie wetlands so productive is being revealed. Many questions remain, such as what are the effects of natural variability in the landscape brought about by fire and grazing on prairie wetlands, what are the effects of different land-use practices on these wetlands, and how do these effects vary within the framework of natural hydrologic variability of these wetlands. Having the Cottonwood Lake Study Area wetlands as reference for natural hydrologic variability provides important context for studies of wetlands affected by natural and human-induced changes in the landscape and is essential for the continued development of the integrated landscape model mentioned above.

    Amazingly, all of this was accomplished without any 'official' ties among agencies at either the regional or national level. Scientists funded to conduct basic research chose to work together because they could see the benefits of interdisciplinary research on these complex systems and the opportunity to work at a common study site initiated by George Swanson. Success has been an attribute of science-driven questions about basic processes in the complex systems known as prairie pothole wetlands. As Walter C. Mendenhall, Director of USGS from 1930 to 1943 once said, "There can be no applied science unless there is science to apply." The new options available to wetland managers on the prairie are a result of collaboration and cooperation among scientists from different agencies and universities that is continuing to provide the science to apply to prairie pothole wetlands.



 

Statement of Problems

The Cottonwood Lake Study Area is one of only three long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring sites in the prairie pothole region of North America. Of the three, Cottonwood Lake has by far the longest continuous data collection record. Research was initiated at the Cottonwood Lake site in 1966 and an intensive investigation into the site’s surface and groundwater hydrology was initiated in 1978.

    More on Statement of Problems »

    Since 1978, focus has been placed on determining the effects of climate and groundwater on surface water levels, the effects of changing water dynamics on wetland water chemistry, and the combined effects of climate, hydrology, and water chemistry on the plant and animal communities of prairie pothole wetlands. The long term nature of the Cottonwood Lake investigations allows resultant data sets to contribute greatly to NPWRC’s current investigations into the potential effects of climate change on wetland biotic communities, ecosystem processes, and resultant services important to society. As an example, a study on green house gas emissions from prairie wetlands was recently sited to the study area largely due to the availability of historic and current data records from the site. The period of record covered by the Cottonwood Lake datasets include a five year drought event comparable to that of the dustbowl era of the 1930s and a period of abundant precipitation that has likely not been equaled during the preceding 500 years. These dynamic changes in climate experienced over the period of study and the associated abiotic and biotic datasets linked to these changes provide unique opportunities to examine changes in water chemistry, hydroperiod, and biotic communities (including plants, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and avifauna) in response to a wide variety of potential climate scenarios. The availability of historic long-term data from the Cottonwood Lake Study Area has been instrumental in attracting cooperators, partners, and significant funding (primarily from USDA) to NPWRC to further investigations into the potential effects of climate change and resultant land-use change on a diverse suite of ecosystem services. The bulk of this research is described and being conducted under the Integrated Landscape Modeling Project (BASIS+ Projects NN00E81 and GC09E90 Task 5.60).



 

Objectives

The current objectives of the Cottonwood Lake Study are 1) to continue the collection of data related to the long-term monitoring of climate, hydrology, water chemistry, and biotic communities of this prairie wetland to ensure continuity of the site’s long-term data sets, 2) continue investigations into the effects of climate change on diverse ecosystem services through the use of these historic data sets, and 3) provide baseline long-term monitoring data to the Integrated Landscape Monitoring Initiative for the development of frame-based models to simulate the functioning of prairie ecosystems under various climate change scenarios downscaled from International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios.

 

Methodology

Hydrology - Sixty water table wells and 17 staff gauges have been installed at CLSA to define the water-table configuration and the vertical hydrologic-head gradient within the wetland and groundwater system. Climate - Precipitation is measured with a constant recording tipping-bucket rain gauge and a non-recording rain and snow gauge. Air temperature, relative humidity, surface water temperature, and wind speed are constantly recorded during the open water season to calculate evaporation rates.

    More on Methodology »
    Water Chemistry - cations and anions, major nutrients, pH and specific conductivity are analyzed by US Bureau of Reclamation scientists from water samples collected with a water column sampler at monthly intervals on 5 key wetlands. Plants - Changes in wetland vegetative zones are documented with aerial photographs taken of each wetland during midsummer. Aerial photographs are georeferenced and major vegetative zones are delineated using Mapping and Image Processing Software (MIPS). Monthly Bird Counts - All birds are counted in each CLSA wetland at monthly intervals from 1 April to 30 September. For each species, sex and number of individuals in each wetland are recorded. Wetlands at the CLSA are small and/or open enough that complete counts are achievable for most species. Breeding Bird Surveys - Breeding bird surveys are conducted daily on each wetland at the CLSA from late May to early June (12 surveys total) using the Williams spot-mapping method. Locations of singing male songbirds and all waterfowl are mapped on aerial photographs of each wetland. Data consists of the number of territories for each species associated with individual wetland basins and is used as a yearly measurement of breeding bird response to CLSA wetlands. Amphibians - Amphibians, including tiger salamanders, toads, and frogs are sampled one week each month during the open water, ice-free period in each CLSA wetland using amphibian funnel traps placed in the central zones of wetlands. Data collected consists of numbers of individuals, sex, and developmental stage (larval, adult) of animals caught per sampling effort by species. Aquatic macro-invertebrates - Invertebrate samples are collected monthly from all CLSA wetlands. Vertically oriented funnel traps and benthic corers are used to assess invertebrate densities and biomass within vegetative zones. Sampling is stratified to provide separate estimates of invertebrate biomass and abundance in all major vegetative zones of each wetland. Samples are collected at random locations along the 3 established transects in each wetland that were established earlier and used to collect other biotic and abiotic data.

.

    Cottonwood Lake Map Gallery


    Image of aerial view of Cottonwood Lake
    Image of Cottonwood Lake well locations.
    Image map of Cottonwood Lake wetlands and permanent transects.
    This is an image of a Cottonwood Lake vegetation map.

 

Annual Narratives

2011 Narrative: Collection of long-term abiotic and biotic data will continue at the Cottonwood Lake Study Area as described in the approved study plan for this effort. We will continue to cooperate with other efforts being conducted at the site and/or using data from the site’s long-term data archives. Chief among these will be our continued provisioning of data to the Integrated Landscape Modeling (ILM) project. Long-term data from the Cottonwood Lake site is key to the development of model algorithms being developed and used by the ILM effort. We will also continue our work with Geology, specifically senior scientist Martin Goldhaber, and his efforts to explore the geochemical evolution of ground and surface waters of the site, and the potential effects of climate change on geochemical processes. Additionally, a monograph describing changes in abiotic and biotic communities over a 20-year cycle from drought to deluge will be completed and submitted for publication to Ecological Monographs.

2012 Narrative: Key to this effort is the continued maintenance of core date collection efforts to maintain the continuous nature of the long-term data sets. In addition to continuing these data collection efforts, we will also seek out additional opportunities to use these data sets and expand collection efforts as needed to explore the effects of climate change on wetland ecosystems. As an example, we have submitted a proposal to the National Climate Change and Wildlife Research Center to develop technology to estimate wetland function based off of topographic, remotely sensed and other data sources. Previous work at Cottonwood Lake has shown that determination of wetland hydrologic function is key to modeling ecosystem process in these dynamic systems. Data from Cottonwood Lake’s historic and current data achieves will be essential to the success of this project if it is funded. Additionally, we will continue to work with current and new partners and collaborators who are attracted to conduct research at the site due to the availability of the abundance of historic climate, hydrologic, chemical, and biotic data available for each wetland in this intensively studied prairie wetland complex.

 

Products

animation of Cottonwood Lake images.

    Publications & Reports »

    Arndt, J.L., and Richardson, J.L. 1992. Carbonate and gypsum chemistry in saturated, neutral pH soil environments. In Robarts, R.D., and Bothwell, M.L., eds., Aquatic Ecosystems in Semi-Arid Regions: implications for Resource Management. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Environment Canada. The National Hydrology Research Symposium Series 7:179-187.

    Arndt, J.L., and Richardson, J.L. 1993. Temporal variations in the salinity of shallow groundwater from the periphery of some North Dakota wetlands (USA). Journal of Hydrology 141:75-105. Biondini, M.E., and Arndt, J.L. 1993. The biogeochemistry of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur transformations in seasonal and semipermanent wetlands. North Dakota Water Resources Research Institute Report no. 90-5.

    Carter, V., and Novitzki, R.P. 1988. Some comments on the relation between ground water and wetlands. In Hook, D.D., and others, ed., The Ecology and Management of Wetlands, Volume 1: Ecology of Wetlands. London, England, Croom Helm, p. 68-86.

    Covich, A.P., Fritz, S.C., Lamb, P.J., Marzolf, R.D., Matthews, W.J., Poiani, K.A., Prepas, E.E., Richman, M.B., and Winter, T.C. 1997. Potential effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems of the Great Plains of North America. Hydrological Processes 11:993-1021.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O., and Nelson, R.D. 2004. The wetland continuum: A conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies: Wetlands 24:448-458.

    Euliss, N. H., Jr., and Mushet, D.M. 1996. Water-level fluctuation in wetlands as a function of landscape condition in the prairie pothole region. Wetlands 16:587-593.

    Euliss, N. H., Jr. and Mushet, D.M. 2011. A Multi-year Comparison of IPCI Scores for Prairie Pothole Wetlands: Implications of Temporal and Spatial Variation. Wetlands (In Press).

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., and Smith, L.M. 2009. Conservation at a crossroads. National Wetlands Newsletter 31:26-27.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., and Smith, L.M. 2010. Ecosystem process and the hemi-marsh concept: clarifying principles for wetland management. National Wetlands Newsletter 32:23-24.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., Smith, L.M., Wilcox, D.A., and Brinson, M.M. 2008. Linking ecosystem process with wetland management goals: charting a course for a sustainable future. Wetlands 28:553-562.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., L.M. Smith, D.A. Wilcox, and M.M. Brinson. 2009. Linking ecosystem processes to sustainable wetland management. National Wetlands Newsletter 31:2-5,22.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., Wrubleski, D.A., and Mushet, D.M. 1999. Wetlands of the prairie pothole region: invertebrate species composition, ecology, and management. p. 471-514. InBatzer, D.P., Rader, R.B., and Wissinger, S.A. (eds.), Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands of North America: Ecology and Management. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY.

    Forester, R.M. 1986. Determination of the dissolved anion composition of ancient lakes from fossil ostracodes. Geology 14:796-798.

    Freeland, J.A., Richardson, J.L., and Foss, L.A. 1999. Soil indicators of agricultural impacts on northern prairie wetlands: Cottonwood Lake Research Area, North Dakota, USA. Wetlands 19:56-64.

    Goldhaber M.B., Mills, C.T., Stricker, C.A. and Morrison, J.M. 2011. The Role of Critical Zone Processes in the Origin of the Prairie Pothole Region Wetlands. Applied Geochemistry (In Press).

    Hanson, B.A., Euliss, N.H., Jr., and Mushet, D.M. 2002. First records for loosely coiled valve snail in North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 34:63-65.

    Hanson, B.A., Euliss, N.H., Jr., and Mushet, D.M. 2004. First record of Graphoderus liberus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 36:67-69.

    Hanson, B.A., Euliss, N.H., Jr., Mushet, D.M., and Chordes, S.W., III. 2003. First record of Dasycorixa rawsoni (Hemiptera: Corixidae) in the United States. Entomological News 114:235-236.

    Hanson, B.A., Mushet, D.M., Euliss, N.H., Jr., and Chordes, S.W., III. 2007. First record of Corisella inscripta (Uhler) (Heteroptera : Corixidae) from North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 39:107-110.

    Hanson, B.A., and Swanson, G.A. 1987. The aquatic coleoptera of Cottonwood Lake wetlands. Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Sciences 41:30.

    Hanson, B.A., and Swanson, G.A. 1989. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 21:49-57.

    Holloway, J.M., Goldhaber, M.B. and Mills, C.T. 2011. Carbon and Nitrogen Biogeochemistry in a Prairie Potholes Region Wetland, Stutsman County, North Dakota, USA. Applied Geochemistry (In Press).

    Huang, S., Young, C., Feng, M., Heidemann, K., Cushing, M., Mushet, D.M. and Liu, S. 2011. Demonstration of a conceptual model for using LiDAR to improve the estimation of floodwater mitigation potential of Prairie Pothole Region wetlands. Journal of Hydrology (In Press).

    Kantrud, H.A., Krapu, G.L., and Swanson, G.A. 1989. Prairie Basin Wetlands of the Dakotas: a community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 85 (7.28).

    LaBaugh, J.W. 1988. Relation of hydrogeologic setting to chemical characteristics of selected lakes and wetlands within a climate gradient in the North-Central United States. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung Limnologie 23:131-137.

    LaBaugh, J.W. 1989. Chemical characteristics of water in northern prairie wetlands. In van der Valk, A. (ed), Northern Prairie Wetlands. Ames, IA, Iowa State University Press, p. 56-90.

    LaBaugh, J.W. 1991. Spatial and temporal variation in chemical characteristics of ground water adjacent to selected lakes and wetlands in the North-Central United States. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung Limnologie 24:1588-1594.

    LaBaugh, J.W. 1995. Relation of algal biovolume to chlorophyll a in selected lakes and wetlands in the north-central United States. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52:416-424.

    LaBaugh, J.W., and Swanson, G.A. 1992. Changes in chemical characteristics of water in selected wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, U.S.A., 1967-1989. In Robarts, R.D., and Bothwell, M.L., eds., Aquatic Ecosystems in Semi-Arid Regions: Implications for Resource Management. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Environment Canada, The National Hydrology Research Institute Symposium Series 7:149-162.

    LaBaugh, J.W., and Swanson, G.A. 2004. Spatial and temporal variability in specific conductance and chemical characteristics of wetland water and in water column biota in the wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake Area. In Winter, T.C. (ed), Hydrological, chemical, and biological characteristics of a prairie pothole wetland complex under highly variable climate conditions – the Cottonwood Lake area, east-central North Dakota. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1675, Denver, CO. p. 35-54.

    LaBaugh, J.W., Winter, T.C., Adomaitis, V.A., and Swanson, G.A. 1987. Hydrology and chemistry of selected prairie wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1979-82. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1431.

    LaBaugh, J.W., Winter, T.C., and Rosenberry, D.O. 1998. Hydrologic functions of prairie wetlands. Great Plains Research 8:17-37.

    LaBaugh, J.W., Winter, T.C., and Rosenberry, D.O. 2000. Comparison of the variability in fluxes of ground water and solutes in lakes and wetlands in central North America. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung Limnologie 27:420-426.

    LaBaugh, J.W., Winter, T.C., Swanson, G.A., Rosenberry, D.O., Nelson, R.D., and Euliss, N.H., Jr. 1996. Changes in atmospheric circulation patterns affect midcontinent wetlands sensitive to climate. Limnology and Oceanography 41:864-870.

    LaBaugh, J.W., and Swanson, G.A. 1988. Algae and invertebrates in the water column of selected prairie wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1984. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-451, 96 p.

    Larson, D.L., Euliss, N.H., Jr., Lannoo, M.J., and Mushet, D.M. 1998. Amphibians of northern grasslands. p. 450-451. In Mac, M.J., Opler, P.A., Puckett, Haecker, C.E., and Doran, P.D.(eds.), Status and Trends of the Nation’s Biological Resources, Volume 2. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA.

    Mills, C. T., Goldhaber, M.B., Stricker, C.A., Holloway, J. M., Morrison, J.M., Ellefsen, K.J., Rosenberry, D.O. and Thurston, R.S. 2011. Using Stable Isotopes to Understand Hydrochemical Processes in and Around a Prairie Pothole Wetland. Applied Geochemistry (In Press).

    Mushet, D.M., Euliss, N.H., Jr., Hanson, B.A., and Zodrow, S.G. 1997. A funnel trap for sampling salamanders in wetlands. Herpetological Review 28:132-133.

    Mushet, D.M., Euliss, N.H., Jr., Lane, S.P., and Goldade, C.M. 2004. The flora of the Cottonwood Lake Study Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 36:43-62.

    Mushet, D.M., Euliss, N.H., Jr., and Shaffer, T.L. 2002. Floristic quality assessment of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in North Dakota, USA. Wetlands 22:126-138.

    Nelson, R.D., and Butler, M.G. 1987. Seasonal abundance of larval and adult chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) in four prairie wetlands. Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science 41:31.

    Parkhurst, R. S., T. C. Winter, D. O. Rosenberry, and A. M. Sturrock. 1998. Evaporation from a small prairie wetland in the Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota - an energy-budget study. Wetlands. 18:272-287.

    Poiani, K.A., and Johnson, W.C. 1988. Evaluation of the emergence method in estimating seed bank composition of prairie wetlands. Aquatic Botany 32:91-97.

    Poiani, K.A., and Johnson, W.C. 1989. Effect of hydroperiod on seed bank composition in semi-permanent prairie wetlands. Canadian Journal of Botany 67:856-864.

    Poiani, K.A., and Johnson, W.C. 1991. Global warming and prairie wetlands: potential consequences for waterfowl habitat. Bioscience 41:611-618.

    Poiani, K.A., and Johnson, W.C. 1993. Potential effects of climate change in a semi-permanent prairie wetland. Climatic Change 24:213-232.

    Poiani, K.A., and Johnson, W.C. 1993. A spatial simulation model of hydrology and vegetation dynamics in semi-permanent prairie wetlands. Ecological Applications 3:279-293.

    Poiani, K.A., and Johnson, W.C. 2003. Simulation of hydrology and vegetation dynamics of prairie wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake Area. In Winter, T.C. (ed), Hydrological, chemical, and biological characteristics of a prairie pothole wetland complex under highly variable climate conditions – the Cottonwood Lake area, east-central North Dakota. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1675, Denver, CO. p. 95-109.

    Poiani, K.A., Johnson, W.C., and Kittel, T.G.F. 1995. Sensitivity of a prairie wetland to increased temperature and seasonal precipitation changes. Water Resources Bulletin 31(2):283-294.

    Poiani, K.A., Johnson, W.C., Swanson, G.A., and Winter, T.C. 1996. Climate change and northern prairie wetlands: simulations of long-term dynamics. Limnology and Oceanography 41:871-881.

    Rosenberry, D.O. 1987. Climatic characteristics of the Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota. Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Sciences 41:26.

    Rosenberry, D.O. 2000. Evapotranspiration affects ground-water discharge to prairie wetlands during drought and deluge: annual meeting of the Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting, Tokyo, Japan, June 27-30, 2000, supplement to Eos, vol. 81, no. 22, p. WP56. Invited.

    Rosenberry, D.O. 2003. Climate of the Cottonwood Lake Area. In Winter, T.C. (ed), Hydrological, chemical, and biological characteristics of a prairie pothole wetland complex under highly variable climate conditions – the Cottonwood Lake area, east-central North Dakota. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1675, Denver, CO. p. 25-34.

    Rosenberry, D.O., Stannard, D.I., Winter, T.C., and Martinez, M.L. 2004. Comparison of 13 equations for determining evapotranspiration from a prairie wetland, Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, USA, Wetlands 24:483-497.

    Rosenberry, D.O., and Winter, T.C. 1997. Dynamics of water-table fluctuationsin an upland between two prairie-pothole wetlands in North Dakota. Journal of Hydrology 191:266-289.

    Rosenberry, D.O. and Winter, T.C. 1998. Hydrologic response of wetland stage and ground-water levels in North Dakota to droughts and deluges of various magnitudes. Spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Boston, Massachusetts, May 26-29, 1998, supplement to Eos, p. S152.

    Rover, J.A., Wright, C.K., Euliss, N.H., Jr., Mushet, D.M. and Wylie, B.K. 2011. Classifying the hydrologic function of prairie potholes with remote sensing and GIS. Wetlands 31:319-327.

    Smith, L. M., Euliss, N.H., Jr., Wilcox, D.A. and Brinson, M.M. 2008. Application of a geomorphic and temporal perspective to wetland management in North America. Wetlands 28:563-577.

    Smith, L. M., Euliss, N.H., Jr., Wilcox, D.A. and Brinson, M.M. 2009. Sustainable wetland management and support of ecosystem services. National Wetlands Newsletter 31:4-7,21.

    Stannard, D.I., Rosenberry, D.O., Winter, T.C., and Parkhurst, R.S. 2004. Estimates of fetch-induced errors in Bowen-Ratio energy-budget measurements of evapotranspiration from a prairie wetland, Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, USA, Wetlands 24:498-513.

    Sturrock, A.M., Hanson, B.A., Scarborough, J.L., and Winter, T.C. 1987. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1983. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 87-216.

    Sturrock, A.M., Hanson, B.A., Scarborough, J.L., and Winter, T.C. 1986. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1982. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-477.

    Swanson, G.A. 1984. Dissemination of amphipods by waterfowl. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:988-991.

    Swanson, G.A. 1987. An introduction to the Cottonwood Lake area. Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science 41:25.

    Swanson, G.A., and Duebbert, H.F. 1989. Wetland habitats of waterfowl in the prairie pothole region. In van der Valk, A.G., ed., Northern Prairie Wetlands. Ames,IA, Iowa State University Press, p. 228-267.

    Swanson, G.A., Euliss, N.H., Jr., Hanson, B.A., and Mushet, D.M. 2003. Dynamics of a prairie pothole wetland complex: implications for wetland management. In Winter, T.C. (ed), Hydrological, chemical, and biological characteristics of a prairie pothole wetland complex under highly variable climate conditions – the Cottonwood Lake area, east-central North Dakota. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1675, Denver, CO. p. 55-94.

    Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Adomaitis, V.A., and LaBaugh, J.W. 1988. Chemical characteristics of prairie lakes in south-central North Dakota - Their potential for influencing use by fish and wildlife. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Technical Report 18.

    Winter, T.C. 1987. Hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota. Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science 41:29.

    Winter, T.C. 1988. A conceptual framework for assessing cumulative impacts on the hydrology of nontidal wetlands. Environmental Management 12:605-620.

    Winter, T.C. 1988. The interaction of wetlands and ground water in the semiarid prairie of North America. In International Symposium on Hydrology of Wetlands in Semiarid and Arid Regions, 1988, Proceedings: Seville, Spain, International Association of Hydrogeologists, p. 173-176.

    Winter, T.C. 1989. Hydrologic studies of wetlands in the northern prairie. In van der Valk, A.G., ed., Northern Prairie Wetlands. Ames, IA, Iowa State University Press, p. 16-54.

    Winter, T.C. 1999. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems: Hydrogeology Journal 7:28-45. Winter, T.C. 1990. A physiographic and climatic framework for hydrologic studies of wetlands. In Robarts, R.D., and Bothwell, M.L., eds., Aquatic Ecosystems in Semi-Arid Regions: Implications for Resource Management. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Environment Canada, The National Hydrology Research Institute Symposium Series 7:127-148.

    Winter, T.C. 2001. The concept of hydrologic landscapes: Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37:335-349. Also reprinted by the United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Water Resources Journal, ST/ESCAP/Ser.C/211, p. 25-41, December, 2001.

    Winter, T.C., (editor). 2003. Hydrological, chemical, and biological characteristics of a prairie pothole wetland complex under highly variable climate conditions - The Cottonwood Lake area, east-central North Dakota: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1675.

    Winter, T.C. 2003. Geohydrologic setting of the Cottonwood Lake Area. In Winter, T.C. (ed), Hydrological, chemical, and biological characteristics of a prairie pothole wetland complex under highly variable climate conditions – the Cottonwood Lake area, east-central North Dakota. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1675, Denver, CO. p. 1-24.

    Winter, T.C. 2004. The hydrology of lakes. In O'Sullivan, P.E. and Reynolds, C.S. (eds.) The Lakes Handbook, v. 1: Oxford, Blackwell Science, p. 61-78.

    Winter, T.C., and Carr, M.R. 1980. Hydrologic setting of wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 80-99.

    Winter, T.C., Harvey, J.W., Franke, O.L., and Alley, W.M. 1998. Ground water and surface water - a single resource. U. S. Geological Survey Circular 1139.

    Winter, T.C., and LaBaugh, J.W. 2003. Hydrologic considerations in defining isolated wetlands: Wetlands 23:532-540.

    Winter, T.C., Mallory, S.E., Allen, T.R., and Rosenberry, D.O. 2000. The use of principal-component analysis for interpreting ground-water hydrographs. Ground Water 38:234-246.

    Winter, T.C., and Rosenberry, D.O. 1995. The interaction of ground water with prairie pothole wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake area, east-central North Dakota, 1979-1990. Wetlands, 15:193-211.

    Winter, T.C., and Rosenberry, D.O. 1998. Hydrology of prairie pothole wetlands during drought and deluge: a 17-year study of the Cottonwood Lake wetland complex in North Dakota in the perspective of longer term measured and proxy hydrologic records. Climatic Change 40:189-209.

    Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O., Buso, D.C., and Mark, D.A. 2001. Water source to four U.S. wetlands: implications for wetland management. Wetlands 21:462-473.

    Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O., Kelly, E., and LaBaugh, J.W. 2005. Comparison of wetlands in different hydrogeological settings under conditions of extreme climate variability. In Heathwaite, L., Webb, B., Rosenberry, D., Weaver, D. and Hayashi, M., eds., Dynamics and Biogeochemistry of River Corridors and Wetlands, International Association of Hydrological Sciences IAHS Publication 294, p. 139-147.

    Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O., and LaBaugh, J.W. 2003. Where does the ground water in small watersheds come from? Ground Water 41:989-1000.

    Winter, T.C., and Woo, M.K. 1990. Hydrology of lakes and wetlands. In Wolman, M.G., and Riggs, H.C., eds., Surface Water Hydrology: The Geology of North America, v. O-1, Boulder, Colorado. Geological Society of America, p. 159-187.

    Woo, Ming-Ko, and Winter, T.C. 1993. The role of permafrost and seasonal frost in the hydrology of northern wetlands in North America. Journal of Hydrology 141:5-31.




    Theses & Dissertations »

    Arndt, J.L. 1994. Hydrology and soil interactions in drained and undrained wetlands in the glaciated northern prairie, North Dakota. Ph.D. Dissertation, North Dakota State University, Fargo.

    Mushet, D.M. 2010. From earth observing space satellites to nuclear microsatellites: amphibian conservation in the northern Great Plains. Ph.D. Dissertation. North Dakota State University, Fargo.

    Nelson, R.D. 1989. Seasonal abundance and life cycles of chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) in four prairie wetlands. Ph.D. Dissertation, North Dakota State University, Fargo.

    Poiani, K.A. 1987. The effect of hydroperiod on seed banks in semi-permanent prairie wetlands. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.

    Poiani, K.A. 1990. Response of a semi-permanent prairie wetland to climate change: a spatial simulation model. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.

    Summers, G. 1993. The role of wetlands in nitrogen cycling in the prairie pothole region. M.S. Thesis, North Dakota State University, Fargo.

    Swanson, K.D. 1990. Chemical evaluation of ground-water in clay till in a prairie wetland setting in the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota. M.S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

    Presentations »

    Arndt, J. L., and Richardson, J. L. 1990. Carbonate and gypsum chemistry in saturated, neutral pH soil environments. Presentation at the Conference on Aquatic Ecosystems in semi-arid Regions: Implications for Resource Management. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, August 27-30, 1990.

    Arndt, J.L, Rosenberry, D.O., and LaBaugh, J.W. 1993. Effects of ground-water flow systems on hydric soils in two prairie wetlands in North Dakota. Presentation at the American Geophysical Union meeting, San Francisco, California, December 6-10, 1993.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr. 1993. Response of Aquatic Organisms to Hydrology and Water Chemistry in Wetland Systems. Presentation at the First Annual Comprehensive Wetland Workshop, Indiana Chapter of the Wildlife Society and Purdue University Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Seymore, Indiana, October 13-14, 1993.

    Euliss, N.H, .Jr. 1997. Effects and Magnitude of Wetland Loss in the Prairie Pothole Region. Presentation at the Great Plains Bus Tour; Billings to Sioux Falls; Department of the Interior Executive Field Seminar, Spearfish, South Dakota, August 24-29, 1997.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr. 1999. Ecology of prairie wetlands. Guest lecture to a graduate wetland ecology class, South Dakota State University, Department of Wildlife, Brookings, South Dakota; October 7, 1999.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr. 2001. Ecology of prairie wetlands. Guest lecture, graduate wetland ecology class, Department of Biology, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota; February 26, 2002.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr. 2002. Influence of inter-annual climate variability on bird populations in the Prairie Pothole Region. Bismarck--Mandan Bird Club, Guest Speaker, Bismarck, North Dakota, November 1, 2002.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2002. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Invited lecture, Wetland and Riparian Ecology and Management Class, University of Minnesota, Crookston, Minnesota, March 8, 2002.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2002. The Wetland Continuum: a Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Biological Studies. Presentation at the Research Committee Meeting, National Research Program Annual Meeting, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins, CO, May 21-23, 2002.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2002. The Wetland Continuum: a Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Biological Studies. Presentation at the Ninth National Conference, The Wildlife Society, Bismarck, North Dakota, September 24-28, 2002.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2002. The Wetland Continuum of the Prairie Pothole Region. Presentation at the Geological Society of America Annual Conference, Denver, Colorado, October 27, 2002.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2002. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Presentation at the Graduate Seminar, St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, Minnesota, February 12, 2003.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2003. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Presentation at the Annual Meeting of Fisheries Biologists, North Dakota Game and Fish, Jamestown, North Dakota, March 12, 2003.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2003. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Presentation at the American Wetlands Conference; Annual Meeting of the Isaac Walton of America, Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 1-4, 2003.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2003. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Special Presentation to U.S. Geological Survey’s EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, May 19, 2003.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2003. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Center for Agricultural Landscape and Land Use Research, Muncheberg, Germany, June 20, 2003.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2003. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Special Seminar to Graduate Wetlands Class from Iowa State University, Jamestown, North Dakota, August 11, 2003.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2003. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Presentation at the Annual Conference; Soil Science Society of America; Denver, Colorado, November 2-6, 2003.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2004. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Presentation at the Ecology Series Seminar, School of Natural Resources, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California; February 5, 2004.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2004. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Special Seminar at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Regional Office (Region 3), Lakewood, Colorado, July 13, 2004.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2004. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Presentation at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Region 3) Annual Biological Workshop, Minot, North Dakota, August 18-19, 2004.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., LaBaugh, J.W., Fredrickson, L.H., Mushet, D.M., Laubhan, M.K., Swanson, G.A., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O. and Nelson, R.D. 2005. The Wetland Continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies. Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Charlestown, South Carolina, June 5-10, 2005.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr. and Mushet, D.M. 2001. Prairie Wetlands in an Agricultural Landscape. Guest Speaker at the 2001 North Dakota Wetlands Trust Board of Directors Meeting, December 14, 2000.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., and Swanson, G.A. 1993. Response of Macroinvertebrates and Hydrophytes to Hydrologic Cycles in a Prairie Wetland Complex from 1967-1993 Presentation at the Forty-first Annual meeting, North American Benthological Society, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, May 28, 1993.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., and Swanson, G.A. 1993. Dynamics of a prairie wetland complex from 1967-1992. Presentation at the Society of Wetland Scientists/American Society of Limnology and Oceanography meeting, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 30 - June 4, 1993.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., Swanson, G.A., LaBaugh, J.W., Nelson, R.D., Winter, T.C., and Rosenberry, D.O. 1999. The wetland continuum: an example from the prairie pothole region, Part II: Ecological Implications. Presented at the annual North American Benthological Society Meeting, Duluth, Minnesota, May 28, 1999.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., Swanson, G.A., LaBaugh, J.W., Nelson, R.D., Winter, T.C., and Rosenberry, D.O. 1999. The Wetland Continuum: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Biological Studies in the Prairie Pothole Region. Presentation at the Annual Wetland Workshop, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, Great Plains Region, Estes Park, Colorado, October 26-27, 1999.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., Swanson, G.A., LaBaugh, J.W., Nelson, R.D., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O., and Mushet, D.M. 2000. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region. Presentation at the Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference 62:151-152.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., Swanson, G.A., LaBaugh, J.W., Nelson, R.D., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O., and Mushet, D.M. 2000. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region. Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the North Dakota Chapter of the Wildlife Society, Minot, North Dakota, February 8-11, 2000.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., Swanson, G.A., LaBaugh, J.W., Nelson, R.D., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O., and Mushet, D.M. 2001. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region. Presentation at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Natural Resource Management Meeting, Jamestown, North Dakota. Feb 13, 2001.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., Swanson, G.A., LaBaugh, J.W., Nelson, R.D., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O., and Mushet, D.M. 2001. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region. Presentation at the Symposium on the Role of Drought in Aquatic Ecosystems, Albury, New South Wales, Australia, February 12-14, 2001.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., and Winter, T.C. 1997. Hydrology of Prairie Pothole Wetlands. The Presentation on the Great Plains Bus Tour; Billings to Sioux Falls; Department of the Interior Executive Field Seminar, Spearfish, South Dakota, August 24-29, 1997.

    Euliss, N.H., Jr., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O., LaBaugh, J.W., and Nelson, R.D. 2002. The wetland continuum in the prairie-pothole region. Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Denver, Colorado, GSA Abstracts with Program, paper 20-9, October 27-30, 2002

    Goldhaber, M., Mills, C., Strickler, C., LaBaugh, J., Mushet, D.M., and Euliss, N.H., Jr. 2010. Modeling the geochemistry of prairie pothole wetlands. Presentation at the Third USGS Modeling Conference, Denver, Colorado, 7-11 June 2010

    Kirby, D.R., Krabbenhoft, K.D., and Biondini, M.E. 1994. Ecological dynamics of a created seasonal wetland in North Dakota. Presentation at the International Land Reclamation and Mine Drainage Conference. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    LaBaugh, J.W. 1984. The impact of hydrology on the chemistry of Prairie Pothole Wetlands. Presentation at the Special Symposium on Prairie Wetlands of the Ninth North American Prairie Conference, Moorhead, Minnesota, July 29-August 1, 1984.

    LaBaugh, J.W. 1986. Spatial and temporal variation in chemical characteristics of ground water and water in wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota 1979-1985. Presentation at a symposium on "Chemical Quality of Water and the Hydrologic Cycle" at the 1986 Rocky Mountain Regional meeting of the American Chemical Society, Denver, Colorado, June 8-12, 1986.

    LaBaugh, J.W. 1987. Relation of hydrogeologic setting to chemical characteristics of selected lakes and wetlands within a climate gradient in the north-central United States. Presentation at the XXIII Societas Internationalis Limnologiae Congress, Hamilton, New Zealand, February 8-14, 1987.

    LaBaugh, J.W. 1987. Use of ion ratios as indicators of processes affecting chemical characteristics of selected wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, 1979-86. Presentation in a symposium "Ecology of a wetland complex in the Coteau du Missouri" at the joint meeting of the North Dakota and Minnesota Academies of Science, Moorhead, Minnesota, April 24-25, 1987.

    LaBaugh, J.W. 1989. Spatial and temporal variation in chemical characteristics of ground water adjacent to selected lakes and wetlands in the north-central United States. Presentation at the XXIV Societas Internationalis Limnologiae Congress, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, August 13-19, 1989.

    LaBaugh, J.W. 1992. Change in chemical characteristics of lakes and wetlands in response to change in hydrologic conditions 1979-91. Presentation at the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Santa Fe Meeting, February 9-14, 1992.

    LaBaugh, J.W. 1993. Effect of persistent drought on chemical characteristics of three semipermanent prairie pothole wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota. Presentation at the Society of Wetland Scientists/American Society of Limnology and Oceanography meeting, Edmonton, Alberta, May 30-June 4, 1993.

    LaBaugh, J.W., Rosenberry, D. O., and Winter, T.C. 1998. Comparison of ground water-surface water interaction and chemical fluxes in lakes and wetlands in central North America, 1978 to 1997. Presentation at the 27th Congress of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology, Dublin, Ireland, August 10-14, 1998.

    LaBaugh, J.W., and Swanson, G.A. 1987. Seasonal changes in concentration of chlorophyll a in the water column of 5 prairie wetlands, Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, 1984-85: effects of migratory waterfowl. Presentation at the 1987 meeting of the Ecological Society of America, Columbus, Ohio, August 9-13, 1987.

    LaBaugh, J.W., and Swanson, G.A. 1988. Interaction of emergent macrophyte loss, algal-biomass increase, and pH increase in relation to changes in relative abundance of major ions in a seasonal prairie wetland, Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota. Presentation at the Ecological Society of America meeting, Davis, California, August 14-18, 1988.

    LaBaugh, J.W., and Swanson, G.A. 1990. Changes in chemical characteristics of water in selected wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, U.S.A., 1979-89. Presentation at the Conference on Aquatic Ecosystems in semi-arid Regions, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, August 27-30, 1990.

    LaBaugh, J.W., and Swanson, G.A. 1991. Water quality changes in a wetland in the Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, in response to changes in wetland-ground water interaction, 1979-90. Presentation at the 1991 North American Lake Management Society 11th International Symposium, Denver, Colorado, November 11-16, 1991.

    LaBaugh, J.W., and Swanson, G.A. 1993. Spatial and temporal variability in chemical characteristics and water column biota in the Cottonwood Lake area wetlands, North Dakota. Presentation at the Wetland Symposium - Prairie Ecosystems: Wetland Ecology, Management and Restoration, Jamestown, North Dakota, August 9-13, 1993.

    LaBaugh, J.W., Swanson, G.A., and Adomaitis, V.A. 1988. Chemical characteristics of 178 prairie lakes in south-central North Dakota. Presentation at the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography meeting, Boulder, Colorado, June 12-16, 1988.

    LaBaugh, J.W., Winter, T.C., Adomaitis, V.A., and Swanson, G.A. 1983. Annual and seasonal dynamics of the hydrology and geochemistry of four prairie wetlands, Cottonwood Lakes area, North Dakota. Presentation at the Ecological Society of America Meeting, Grand Forks, North Dakota, August 7-11, 1983.

    LaBaugh, J.W., Winter, T.C., and Rosenberry, D.O. 1995. Comparison of solute sources to lakes and wetlands in forested and prairie ecosystems. Presentation at the American Geophysical Union meeting, San Francisco, California, December 11-15, 1995.

    LaBaugh, J.W., Winter, T.C., and Rosenberry, D.O. 1999. The role of hydrological processes in determining the water-budget and geochemical characteristics of wetlands. Presentation at the 1999 Annual meeting of the Geological Society of America meeting, October 25 to 28, 1999, Denver, Colorado.

    LaBaugh, J.W., Winter, T.C., and Rosenberry, D.O. 2000. The importance of ground water in the determination of wetland chemical characteristics. Presentation at the Society of Wetland Scientists meeting, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, August 6 to 11, 2000

    LaBaugh, J. W., Winter, T. C., and Rosenberry, D. O. 2007. Response of selected lakes and wetlands in humid to semi-arid areas in central North America to a multi-decadal period of climate variability: the role of ground water. Presentation at the 30th Congress of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology, Montreal, Canada, in a special session on the topic of “Lakes, Streams, Groundwater and Wetlands in the Landscape: Linkages Among Freshwater Systems, August 13, 2007.

    LaBaugh, J.W., Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D. O., Swanson, G.A., Nelson, R.D., and Euliss, N.H., Jr. 1994. Response of prairie wetlands to changing climate conditions from 1967 to 1994 at the Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota. Presentation at the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography - North American Benthological Society Symposium on Freshwater Ecosystems and Climate Change in North America, Leesburg, Virginia, October 24-26, 1994.

    Lannoo, M.J., Bradford, D., Fellers, G., and Euliss, N.H., Jr. 1996. Fish Introductions and Aquacultural Practices: Recently Realized Threats to North American Amphibian Populations. Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society; Dearborn, Michigan. Special Symposium, “Introductions of Nonindigenous Fishes or Other Aquatic Species: Impacts and Implications, August 25-29, 1996.

    Mushet, D.M. 1998. Using a floristic quality index to evaluate management efforts. Presentation at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Workshop, Region 6, Jamestown, North Dakota.

    Mushet. D.M. 2002. Biotic community response to drought and deluge. Seminar, North Dakota State University, Fargo, 18 April 2002.

    Mushet, D.M. 2005. Biotic community response to drought and deluge: lessons from the Cottonwood lake Study Area; Presentation at the University of Minnesota, Crookston, 22 April 2005.

    Mushet, D.M. 2006. Climate, hydrology, and amphibian habitat suitability in the prairie pothole region. Presentation at the Environmental and Conservation Sciences Program—Green-bag Lunch Seminar. North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, 3 October 2006.

    Mushet, D.M. 2007. Tigers in our wetlands: Ambystoma tigrinum, an under-appreciated predator. North Dakota State University, Presentation at the Environmental and Conservation Sciences Graduate Program, Fargo 27 April 2007.

    Mushet, D.M. 2010. Spatial alpha diversity meets temporal gamma diversity in dynamic systems. Presentation at the Environmental and Conservation Sciences Program—Green-bag Lunch Seminar. North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, September 14, 2010.

    Mushet, D.M., and Euliss, N.H., Jr. 2000. Floristic quality of one natural and three restored wetland complexes in the prairie pothole region of the United States. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the North Dakota Chapter of the Wildlife Society, Minot, North Dakota, February 8-11, 2000.

    Mushet, D.M., and Euliss, N.H., Jr. 2002. Biotic Community Response to Drought and Deluge: Lessons from the Cottonwood Lake Study Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota. Presentation at the 2002 Annual Conference; North Dakota Chapter of The Wildlife Society, Grand Forks, North Dakota, February 13-15, 2002.

    Mushet, D.M. and N.H. Euliss Jr. 2002. Biotic community response to drought and deluge: lessons from the Cottonwood Lake Study Area. Presentation at the Wildlife Management Seminar, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point; 1 November 2002.

    Mushet, D.M., and N.H. Euliss, Jr. 2003. Amphibian Response to Drought, Deluge, and Disease at the Cottonwood Lake Study Area. Presentation at the Annual Conference; North Dakota Chapter of The Wildlife Society, Mandan, North Dakota, February 11-13, 2003.

    Mushet, D.M.and N.H. Euliss, Jr. 2004. Trends in Breeding Bird Populations at the Cottonwood Lake Study Area. Presentation at the Annual Conference; North Dakota Chapter, The Wildlife Society, Fargo, North Dakota, February 11-13, 2004.

    Mushet, D.M. and Euliss, N.H., Jr. 2005. Blackbird response to inundation following drought at the Cottonwood Lake Study Area. Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the North Dakota Chapter, The Wildlife Society, Mandan, North Dakota, February 9-11.

    Mushet, D.M. and Euliss, N.H., Jr. 2005. Amphibian Response to Drought, Deluge, and Disease. Presentation at the Annual meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Charlestown, South Carolina, June 5-10, 2005.

    Mushet, D.M. and Euliss, N.H., Jr. 2006. Tigers in our wetlands: Ambystoma tigrinum, and underappreciated predator. Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the North Dakota Chapter of The Wildlife Society, Williston, North Dakota, February 8-10, 2006.

    Mushet, D.M. and Euliss, N.H., Jr. 2007. Tigers in our wetlands, Ambystoma tigrinum, an often underappreciated predator. Presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Sacramento, California, 10-15 June, 2007.

    Mushet, D.M. and Euliss, N.H., Jr. 2008. The effects of natural climate variation on floristic quality assessments of wetland plant communities. Presentation at the Annual meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Washington, DC, May 26-30, 2008.

    Nelson, R.D. 1993. Seasonal abundance and life cycles of Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) in four prairie wetlands. Presentation at the Wetland Symposium - Prairie Ecosystems: Wetland Ecology, Management and Restoration, Jamestown, North Dakota, August 9-13, 1993.

    Poiani, K.A. 1993. Use of a simulation model in managing a semi-permanent prairie wetland. Presentation at the Wetland Symposium - Prairie Ecosystems: Wetland Ecology, Management and Restoration, Jamestown, North Dakota, August 9-13, 1993.

    Poiani, K.A., and Johnson, W.C. 1988. The effect of hydroperiod on seed banks in semi-permanent wetlands. Presentation at the Ecological Society of America meeting, Davis, California, August 14-18, 1988.

    Poiani, K.A., and Johnson, W.C. 1990. Response of prairie wetlands to climate change: A spatial simulation model. Presentation at the Conference on Aquatic Ecosystems in semi-arid Regions, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, August 27-30, 1990.

    Rosenberry, D.O. 1990. Ground-water recharge focused adjacent to a wetland in the Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, U.S.A. Presentation at the Conference on Aquatic Ecosystems in semi-arid Regions, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, August 27-30, 1990.

    Rosenberry, D.O. 1993. Climate of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota. Presentation at the Wetland Symposium - Prairie Ecosystems: Wetland Ecology, Management and Restoration, Jamestown, North Dakota, August 9-13, 1993.

    Rosenberry, D.O. 2002. Wetland stage as an indicator of climate change: ground-water interaction complicates the linkage. Presentation at the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Annual Summer Meeting, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, June 10-14, 2002.

    Rosenberry, D.O. 2005. Wetland hydrology related to climate and geology -- prairie-potholes in North Dakota vs. the Minnesota northern lakes region. Presentation at the Wetland Delineators Association, St. Paul, Minnesota, February 2, 2005.

    Rosenberry, D.O., Arndt, J.L., and LaBaugh, J.W. 1993. Ground-water flow reversals and near-shore soil mineralization affect chemical characteristics of a prairie wetland in North Dakota. Presentation at the American Geophysical meeting, San Francisco, California, December 6-10, 1993.

    Rosenberry, D.O., Winter, T.C., and LaBaugh, J.W. 2000. Evapotranspiration affects ground-water discharge to prairie wetlands during drought and deluge. Presentation at the Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Tokyo, Japan.

    Rosenberry, D.O., Winter, T.C., and LaBaugh, J.W. 2006. Significance of ground-water exchange to wetland response during drought and deluge: Presentation at the Second Biennial Rocky Mountain Regional Lake and Reservoir Management Conference, Golden, Colorado, February 15-17.

    Rosenberry, D.O., Winter, T.C., LaBaugh, J.W. and Walker, J.F. 2000. Watershed-scale hydrologic research across a climatic gradient: an inter-site comparison from four research watersheds in the north central United States. Presentation at the Fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, California, December 15-19, 2000, supplement to Eos, vol. 81, no. 48, p. 421.

    Rover, J.A., Wylie, B.K., Ji, L., Wright, C.K., and Gallant, A.L. 2008. Using remote sensing to estimate ecosystem services in the Prairie Pothole region, Using science for decision making in dynamic systems, Presentation at ACES–A Conference on Ecosystem Services, Naples, FL, December 8-11, 2008.

    Summers, G.P., Biondini, M.E., Kirby, D.R., Grygiel, and Krabbenhoft, K.D. 1993. Nitrogen flow in the decomposition process of a prairie wetland. Presentation at the Society of Wetland Scientists meeting, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 30-June 4, 1993.

    Summers, G.P., Krabbenhoft, K.D., Biondini, M.E., Kirby, D.R, and Grygiel. 1993. Nitrogen cycling in Northern Prairie wetlands. Presentation at the Society of Range Management annual meeting, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Swanson, G.A. 1987. Vegetation changes in wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake area. Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science 41:29.

    Swanson, G.A., Euliss, N.H., Jr., and Hanson, B.A. 1993. Dynamics of a prairie wetland complex. Presentation at the Wetland Symposium - Prairie Ecosystems: Wetland Ecology, Management and Restoration, Jamestown, North Dakota, August 9-13, 1993.

    Wetzel, P.R., and van der Valk, A.G. 1994. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in fresh and saline prairie pothole wetlands. Presentation at the Ecological Society of America meeting, Knoxville, Tennessee, August 7-11, 1994.

    Winter, T.C. 1990. A conceptual framework for long-term hydrologic studies of wetlands. Presentation at the Conference on Aquatic Ecosystems in semi-arid Regions, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, August 27-30, 1990.

    Winter, T.C. 1991. Variability of the interaction of a prairie wetland with ground-water in the Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota, 1979-1990. Presentation at the 1991 North American Lake Management Society 11th International Symposium, Denver, Colorado, November 11-16, 1991.

    Winter, T.C. 1993. Geologic and hydrologic setting of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota. Presentation at the Wetland Symposium - Prairie Ecosystems: Wetland Ecology, Management and Restoration, Jamestown, North Dakota, August 9-13, 1993.

    Winter, T.C., Rosenberry, D.O., LaBaugh, J.W., Swanson, G.A., Euliss, N.H., Jr., and Nelson, R.D. 1999. The wetland continuum: an example from the prairie pothole region, Part I: Hydrogeochemical Framework. Presentation at the annual North American Benthological Society Meeting, Duluth, Minnesota. May 28, 1999.

    Winter, T.C., and Rosenberry, D.O. 1993. The effect of five years of drought (1988-1992) on the hydrology of prairie wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake area, North Dakota. Presentation at the Society of Wetland Scientists/American Society of Limnology and Oceanography meeting, Edmonton, Alberta, May 30-June 4, 1993.



    Posters »

    Euliss, N. H., Jr., LaBaugh, J. W., Fredrickson, L. H., Mushet, D. M., Swanson, G. A., Winter, T. C., Rosenberry, D. O., and Nelson, R. D. 2003. The wetland continuum: a conceptual framework for interpreting biological studies in the prairie pothole region of North America. Annual Conference; Society of Wetland Scientists; New Orleans, Louisiana; June 8-13, 2003.

    Rover, J.A., Wright, C.K., Wylie, B.K., and Euliss, N.H. 2007. Quantifying wetland dynamics and hydrologic function with Landsat Thematic Mapper, in Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 10, 2007-Dec. 14, 2007, Eos Transactions, Suppl., v. 88, no. 52: Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union, p. H31F-0732. (available online at http://www.agu.org/meetings/fm07/waisfm07.html)

    Rover, J.A., Wright, C.K., Wylie, B.K., and Euliss, N.H., 2007, Quantifying wetland dynamics and hydrologic function with Landsat Thematic Mapper, in Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 10, 2007-Dec. 14, 2007, American Geophysical Union. (available online at http://lca.usgs.gov/lca/ilm_ppr/images/posters/3663-LRS_poster_HR.pdf.)

    Ji, L., Wylie, B.K., Zhang, L., Rover, J.A., and Tieszen, L.L., 2007, Delineating surface water features in the prairie pothole wetlands with MODIS data, in Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 10, 2007-Dec. 14, 2007, American Geophysical Union. (available online at http://lca.usgs.gov/lca/alaskalcwr/images/posters/AGU07_poster.pdf.)



    All Products
    Study Plan

 

   

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/cottonwood.html
Page Contact Information: Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Friday, 01-Feb-2013 17:37:34 EST
Reston, VA [vaww54]